- Spinus tristis
4 1/2-5" (11-13 cm).
 Breeding male
- Bright yellow with a white rump
- Black forehead
- White edges on black wings and tail
- Yellow at bend of wing.
 Female and winter male
- Duller and grayer with black wings and tail
- Wing bars are bright in the male, buffy in female.
- Male has more yellow on chin and face.
North America, Canada, United States, Central America
Canada: Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan
United States of America: New England, Alabama, Arkansas, Arizona, California, Colorado, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Iowa, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Mississippi, Montana, North Carolina, North Dakota, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, Nevada, New York, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Vermont, Washington, Wisconsin, West Virginia, Wyoming
Central America: Mexico: Baja California, Sonora, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, Zacatecas, Hidalgo, Tlaxcala, Puebla, Veracruz, Oaxaca
Formerly included in genus Carduelis.
Four subspecies are recognized:
- Eastern Canada to east-central US; winters to south-eastern US and eastern Mexico
Brushy thickets, weedy grasslands, and nearby trees.
Photo by D. Taylor
Wayne County, North Carolina, January 2012
Travels in flocks.
4 or 5 pale blue eggs are laid in a well-made cup of grass, bark strips, and plant down, placed in the upright fork of a small sapling or a shrub. Nests later in summer than other songbirds making it possible to use thistle down in constructing nests.
Song: "per-chick-o-ree", also rendered as "potato-chips", delivered in flight and coinciding with each undulation.
- Clements, JF. 2011. The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World. 6th ed., with updates to August 2011. Ithaca: Cornell Univ. Press. ISBN 978-0801445019. Spreadsheet available at http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/downloadable-clements-checklist
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