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Female: similar to winter male, but with a grey crown
 Similar Species
Chaffinch: male has a grey head, nape and bill. Green rump.
Breeds throughout Norway and in all but southernmost parts of Sweden and Finland, in Estonia and across northern Russia east to the Urals. An isolated population breeds in the Alps in northern Italy and has bred in Iceland, north-central Scotland, Netherlands, Germany and Denmark.
A migratory species with autumn passage mainly in mid-September to October, sometimes November with most birds moving south or south-west through Europe. Widespread in winter throughout Europe south of breeding range occurring west to Iberia and south to the Mediterranean, Turkey and the Middle East. Return passage takes place in March-mid May.
Breeds in open coniferous forest, birch woodland and riverine willows and winters along woodland edges close to open farmland and especially stubble fields. In some areas large numbers gather in autumn and winter in beechwoods to feed on beechmast, also fond of hornbeam seeds.
In winter usually found in large mixed flocks with other finches.
The female builds the cup shaped nest, in a conifer tree, from moss, grass and hair, lined with feathers and wool, decorated with bark and lichen. The clutch consists of 4-9 eggs which are smooth, glossy, greenish to brownish with dark brown markings. Incubation (by the female) takes 11-12 days. The young are fed by both parents and fledge after 11-13 days.
The diet includes seeds and insects.
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