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18-20 cm (7-8 in),
Juvenile: similar to female; male may show black on throat
 Geographic variation
Western birds are generally shorter tailed, and males have less orange on heads and body. Flank color in females varies but not necessarily with an east-west division.
 Similar Species
On males notice the black facial mask goes down perpedicular to the line from eye to upper bill, so that the black area constitutes a square. Similar, black-faced, species have an angle smaller than 90 deg.
Females can be quite similar to female Orchard Oriole, which is smaller, have square tail, shorter stouter bill with almost straight culmen, usually brighter green on upperside and brighter, more evenly colored underside including the flanks.
Breeds from central California, Nevada, central Arizona, southern New Mexico, and southern Texas southward through Mexico to Belize. Some of the Mexican breeders seems to have bred already in the same summer in the US before migrating to Mexico for their second round of nesting.
A few spend winters in southern California and southern Texas, most of the rest winter in Mexico.
Usually found in scrubby or open woods, desert, urban gardens and forests. Observed at heights around 5000 feet.
They nest in tall trees, often in fan palms, cottonwoods, sycamores, oaks, and eucalyptus. The cup-shaped nest is made by the female and suspended from branches. The 3-5 white, pale yellow or pale blue eggs are incubated for about 12-14 days, by the female.
Diet includes fruit, nectar, and insects.
Described as variable but not necessarily loud or striking.
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