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12.5â€“14cm, 4.9-5.5 inches, 11â€“16 g, 0.39-0.53 oz
Breeds from Scandinavia and southern Finland east to west-central Russia, (east bank of the Ob river), south to northeast France, southern Germany, Romania and locally northern Balkans, Ukraine, Crimea and region east of Sea of Azov and northern Iran. Winters to southern Africa.
Open deciduous woodland, including oak (Quercus), birch (Betula), beech (Fagus sylvatica), alder (Alnus), stands of young pine (Pinus) if in mixed woodland, bushes and also parks and gardens, often near water. Also enjoys dense woods with open glades and undergrowth.
End of May to July, but mainly starts breeding in June. Usually single brood.
Diet consists mainly of insects and other inverebrate, including mayflies (Ephemeroptera), dragonflies (Odonata), grasshoppers (Orthoptera), earwigs (Dermaptera), bugs (Hemiptera, including aphids), scorpion flies (Mecoptera), moths and butterflies (Lepidoptera), caddis flies (Trichoptera), dipteran flies, ants, wasps and bees (Hymenoptera), beetles (Coleoptera), spiders (Araneae), small molluscs and earthworms.
Migratory with non-breeding movement to Africa south of the equator from southern Uganda and eastern DR Congo south to Namibia and northern and eastern South Africa. Leaves breeding areas from the end of July to early September arriving at wintering locations between late September and November. The return migration starts in late February/early March, with arrival in late April in south of range and mid May to mid June in northern Europe
Song is a loud mix of shrill or melodious notes and mimicry, delivered with gusto, usually at a fast pace, sometimes slowing to give one clear note at a time, often recognised by recurring nasal â€śgih-eâ€ť, but also by typical trisyllabic calls. Mimicry varies individually, the best mimics copy the sounds of Eurasian Oystercatcher, Common Tern, Tawny Owl, Eurasian Blackbird, Whinchat, etc. Call a melodic, quick â€śtey-te-dweeâ€ť (or rendered â€śdeederoitâ€ť); also a single â€śchekâ€ť. Alarm a drawn out sequence of hard notes, â€śte-te-te-te-te-tekâ€ť, similar to Melodious Warbler. When anxious, a softer whistling â€śdwueeâ€ť.
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