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Alternative name: Fairy Penguin
Includes White-flippered Penguin
Southern Australia from Fremantle to Port Stephens, on the Bass Strait islands and Tasmania. In New Zealand breeds around much of North Island north to North Cape, in Cook Strait and around much of South Island, on Stewart Island and the Chatham Islands.
In Australia non-breeding birds range as far as south-east Queensland.
Two-six subspecies are recognised:
Some authors recognise only minor and novaehollandiae and include White-flippered Penguin.
Breeds from the high-water mark to several hundred metres inland in burrows and natural cavities and uses these to roost throughout the year, returning to land at night. Away from burrows occurs in sheltered seas and bays, often in groups and may fish around jetties.
Breeding season varies with range, July-March in Australia. Colonial breeder in 1 metre long burrows and rock crevices lined with vegetation. Eggs: two, white (55 x 42mm), incubated by both sexes but mainly male for 39-40 days. Young tended by both sexes and fledge in about 56 days.
More vocal than larger penguins with sharp yapping bark as well as braying, growling and trumpeting calls.
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