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Olive-backed Sunbird

From Opus

Alternative name: Yellow-bellied Sunbird

Photo by remoIn an orchid garden in Singapore, July2004
Photo by remo
In an orchid garden in Singapore, July2004
Cinnyris jugularis

Nectarinia jugularis

Contents

[edit] Identification

10–11·4 cm (4-4½ in)

  • Bright yellow underparts
  • Dull brown back
  • Metallic blue-black forehead, throat and upper breast

[edit] Distribution

FemalePhoto by Bobby6425Nug-as, Alcoy, Cebu, Philippines, November 2008
Female
Photo by Bobby6425
Nug-as, Alcoy, Cebu, Philippines, November 2008

Asia and Australasia,
From south-eastern China, south through south-east Asia (excluding north-eastern Burma), Andaman and Nicobar Islands to Sumatra, including surrounding islands, Borneo, Java, Lesser Sunda Islands, Sulawesi, Philippines & south Moluccas, New Guinea, West Papuan Island, Bismarck Archipelago, Solomon Islands, and north-eastern Australia and eastern Queensland.

[edit] Taxonomy

This is one of the many Sunbirds that have recently been moved to the genus Cinnyris from the genus Nectarinia.

[edit] Subspecies

Photo by John W ClarksonPenang, Malaysia, February 2017
Photo by John W Clarkson
Penang, Malaysia, February 2017

There are 21 subspecies[1]:

  • C. j. andamanicus: Andaman Islands (Bay of Bengal)
  • C. j. klossi (blanfordi): Northern Nicobar Islands (Bay of Bengal)
  • C. j. proselius: Car Nicobar Island (Bay of Bengal)
  • C. j. flammaxillaris: Burma to Thailand, Cambodia and northern Malay Peninsula (south to Penang)
  • C. j. ornatus: Southern Malay Peninsula to Sumatra, Borneo, Java, Lesser Sundas and adjacemt islands
  • C. j. rhizophorae: Southern China (southern Yunnan, Guangxi, Guangdong, Hainan) and northern Vietnam
  • C. j. polyclystus: Enggano Island (off western Sumatra)
  • C. j. obscurior: Northern Philippines (montane forests of northern Luzon)
  • C. j. jugularis: Southern Luzon, central and southern Philippine Islands
  • C. j. aurora: Agutaya, Balabac, Busuanga, Cagayancillo, Culion, Cuyo, Palawan
  • C. j. woodi: Sulu Archipelago (southern Philippines)
  • C. j. plateni: Sulawesi, Talaud, Salayar and adjacent smaller islands
  • C. j. infrenatus: Tukangbesi Island (off Sulawesi)
  • C. j. robustirostris: Banggai Island and Sula Island
  • C. j. frenatus: Northern Moluccas, Aru and western Papuan Islands, New Guinea and north-eastern Queensland
  • C. j. teysmanni: Tanahjampea, Kalao, Bonerate, Kalaotoa and Madu islands
  • C. j. buruensis: Buru Island (southern Moluccas)
  • C. j. clementiae: Southern Moluccas (Seram, Ambon and adjacent islands)
  • C. j. keiensis: Kai Island (Kai Kecil, Kai Besar, Ohimas and Add)
  • C. j. idenburgi: North-western New Guinea and Sepik Ramu
  • C. j. flavigastra: Bismarck Archipelago and Solomon Islands

[edit] Habitat

Forest edge, second growth, towns, mangroves, farmlands. Lowlands to 1700m.

[edit] Behaviour

[edit] Diet

Their main diet consists of small insects, spiders, nectar and fruit.

They feed singly, pairs and in small groups.

[edit] Breeding

Both adults build the flask-shaped nest, with an overhanging porch at the entrance, and a trail of hanging material at the bottom end. The 1-2 greenish-blue eggs are incubated for a week. Both parents care for the young which fledge after a further two weeks.

[edit] References

  1. Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2016. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: v2016, with updates to August 2016. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/
  2. Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive (retrieved July 2016)
  3. Wikipedia
  4. BF Member observations

[edit] External Links


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