Alternative names: Sulawesi Tarictic Hornbill; Celebes Hornbill; Sulawesi Dwarf-Hornbill; Temminck's Hornbill
Male ssp sanfordi
Photo by martinuk
Karaenta, Makassar, Sulawesi Selatan, Indonesia
, October, 2009
- Penelopides exarhatus
53cm. A small, black Hornbill.
- Black plumage with green gloss on back
- Male with white facial and throat plumage, stained yellow
- Bill pale yellow, black base at lower mandible, sanfordi with pale creamy yellow ridges across lower mandible
- Female smaller, all black plumage and blacker bill and casque
Juveniles with smaller bill, undeveloped casque
Endemic to Sulawesi, Indonesia.
Locally common, however loss of lowland forest has fragmented its range.
There are two subspecies of the Sulawesi Hornbill:
- P. e. exarhatus in north Sulawesi
- P. e. sanfordi in central, east and south Sulawesi, Buton and Muna Island
Has been treated conspecific with the other species of the genus Penelopides.
Tropical lowland, swamps and primary forests.
Mostly below 650m, sometimes up to 1100m.
The diet includes fruits, figs and insects.
Breeding start from March to April, breeds in pairs, sometimes co-operative in small groups. The female seals herself inside a tree hole for egg-laying. During this time, the male will provide food for the female and the young. Lays 2-3 eggs.
A sedentary and territorial species.
- Del Hoyo, J, A Elliot, and J Sargatal, eds. 2001. Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 6: Mousebirds to Hornbills. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. ISBN 978-8487334306
- Clements, JF. 2011. The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World. 6th ed., with updates to August 2011. Ithaca: Cornell Univ. Press. ISBN 978-0801445019. Spreadsheet available at http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/downloadable-clements-checklist
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