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Includes: Scarlet Flycatcher, Darwin's Flycatcher, San Cristobal Flycatcher
L. 14 cm (5Â½ in)
Immature: resembles female but if female has reddish-pink lower belly and crissum, then the first year bird will often have more yellowish or salmon wash.
Females from Galapagos have virtually unstreaked, yellow underparts.
Both sexes of race obscurus (from coastal Peru) also occur in a uniformly dark brown morph.
 Similar Species
Females and immatures are potentially confusing, but can be separated from most other superficially similar species (e.g. Bran-colored Flycatcher) by the faint or complete lack of wing-bars.
Typically resident, but a large proportion of the population from the southernmost part of its range migrate north to spend the Austral winter in central South America. Additionally, most of the population in USA migrate south to spend the winter in Central America.
Around 13 subspecies are generally recognised:
It has been suggested that the two Galapagos races, nanus and dubius, should be considered one or two separate species. Gill and Donsker have now split those two as Darwin's Flycatcher and San Cristobal Flycatcher (already extinct). Furthermore they have split rubinus as Scarlet Flycatcher, leaving the rest of the species as Vermilion Flycatcher, Pyrocephalus obscurus.
Occurs in a wide range of open or semi-open habitats, including savanna, forest-edge, woodland, scrub, areas with scattered trees. Also in rural zones and city parks or gardens.
Feeds on small insects and spiders. It perches on an open branch, waiting for the prey. After locating it, the flycatcher pursues and captures it in flight.
The courtship display of the male involves singing, raising its crest, fluffing its breast-feathers and, sometimes, delivering a butterfly or showy insect to the female to initiate copulation.
Breeding is seasonal, but timing varies depending on region. The nest is an open cup loosely constructed by moss, grass, twigs and spiderwebs. The 2-3 eggs are incubated entirely by the female, but both sexes feed the chicks.
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