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White-crowned Penduline Tit

From Opus

Photo by Askar Isabekov Ile region, Almaty oblast, Kazakhstan, May 2011
Photo by Askar Isabekov
Ile region, Almaty oblast, Kazakhstan, May 2011

Alternative names: Crowned Penduline Tit; Black-headed Penduline Tit (see Remiz macronyx for disambiguation)

Remiz coronatus

Contents

[edit] Identification

10-11cm. A clearly patterned Penduline Tit.

  • White crown
  • Creamy-buff lower back and rump
  • Crown enclosed by black mask extending as broad band around nape (except when plumage very fresh)
  • Narrow band on forehead
  • Chestnut band on mantle
  • Broad white band on hindneck
Photo by Askar Isabekov Ile region, Almaty oblast, Kazakhstan, May 2001
Photo by Askar Isabekov
Ile region, Almaty oblast, Kazakhstan, May 2001

Females have a more diffuse mask and very little chestnut on upper mantle.
Juveniles are very plain and pale overall. The have buff wing-bars and chestnut on upper wing-coverts. They are probably not distinguishable from other juvenile Penduline Tits.

[edit] Distribution

Found in central Asia where it breeds in northern Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, southern Russia, Mongolia and northwest and northern China.
Winters in southern central Asia including Iran, Pakistan and northwest India. One record from Europe (Austria).
Locally common, uncommon in northern part of range.

[edit] Taxonomy

Forms a superspecies with Eurasian Penduline Tit, Black-headed Penduline Tit and Chinese Penduline Tit. All four sometimes considered one species and present species sometimes considered conspecific with Chinese Penduline Tit.

[edit] Subspecies

Two subspecies recognized:

[edit] Habitat

Stands of willows and poplars along lowland rivers and floodplain meadows. Locally also on bushy hillsides, in gardens and orchards, in turanga trees (in Kyzylkum Desert) and in saxaul scrub. In winter in a variety of habitats like open forest, tamarisks or reedbeds.
Breeds as high as 2400m.

[edit] Behaviour

[edit] Diet

Feeds mainly on insects and their larvae. Takes also small spiders and seeds (especially in winter).
Forages usually acrobaticly in poplars and willows, avoiding reedbeds. Outside breeding season in small flocks, sometimes with up to 50 birds.

[edit] Breeding

Breeding season from late May to June. Probably a monogamous species. The nest is an elongated globular pouch with a entrance tube at the side. It's suspended from a willow or a poplar c. 6-8m above the ground. Lays 3-9 eggs.

[edit] Movements

A strongly migratory species. Arrives in breeding grounds in late May, departs in September and October.

[edit] References

  1. Clements, JF. 2011. The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World. 6th ed., with updates to August 2011. Ithaca: Cornell Univ. Press. ISBN 978-0801445019. Spreadsheet available at http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/downloadable-clements-checklist
  2. Del Hoyo, J, A Elliott, and D Christie, eds. 2008. Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 13: Penduline-tits to Shrikes. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. ISBN 978-8496553453
  3. Rasmussen, PC and JC Anderton. 2005. Birds of South Asia: The Ripley Guide. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. ISBN 978-8487334672

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