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Black-necked Grebe

From Opus

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Revision as of 23:27, 31 May 2009 (edit)
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Revision as of 16:32, 12 April 2010 (edit) (undo)
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(Photo captions. Taxonomy expanded. References)
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;[[:Category:Podiceps|Podiceps]] nigricollis ;[[:Category:Podiceps|Podiceps]] nigricollis
-[[Image:Eared grebe.jpg|thumb|550px|right|Photo by {{user|macshark|macshark}}<br>N. American race, Shoreline Lake, N. [[California]]]]+[[Image:Eared grebe.jpg|thumb|550px|right|N. American race<br />Photo by {{user|macshark|macshark}}<br /> Shoreline Lake, North [[California]]]]
- +
-[[Image:Black-necked_Grebe.jpg|thumb|350px|right|Photo by {{user|martinuk|martinuk}}<br>Nominate race in breeding plumage]] +
-[[Image:d07_2059.jpg|thumb|350px|right|Photo by {{user|Gary+Clark|Gary Clark}}+
-<br>Non-breeding plumage, [[Patagonia Lake]], [[Arizona]], [[USA]]]]+
- +
'''Alternative name: Eared Grebe''' '''Alternative name: Eared Grebe'''
- 
==Identification== ==Identification==
Medium-sized grebe, length 28-34cm, wingspan 57cm.<br /> Medium-sized grebe, length 28-34cm, wingspan 57cm.<br />
Line 17: Line 11:
*Tuft of golden-yellow *Tuft of golden-yellow
*Extends from eye and droops down over ear coverts *Extends from eye and droops down over ear coverts
 +[[Image:Black-necked_Grebe.jpg|thumb|350px|right|Nominate race in breeding plumage<br />Photo by {{user|martinuk|martinuk}}<br />Chmielek, [[Poland]], May 2002]]
*Red iris *Red iris
*Black bill *Black bill
Line 25: Line 20:
*Dark crown extends well below eye level and merges with grey ear coverts<br /> *Dark crown extends well below eye level and merges with grey ear coverts<br />
'''Juvenile''': Resemble non-breeding adult, but browner with cheeks tinged buff '''Juvenile''': Resemble non-breeding adult, but browner with cheeks tinged buff
-====Similar Species====+[[Image:d07_2059.jpg|thumb|350px|right|Non-breeding plumage<br />Photo by {{user|Gary+Clark|Gary Clark}}<br />[[Patagonia Lake]], [[Arizona]], [[USA]]]]
-[[Slavonian Grebe]]:+
- +
'''Flight''': Upperwing shows broad white trailing edge to secondaries but lacks white of forewing base seen in Slavonian. '''Flight''': Upperwing shows broad white trailing edge to secondaries but lacks white of forewing base seen in Slavonian.
Line 33: Line 26:
Dark of crown extends to well below level of eye and merges with grey ear-coverts thus less clearly demarcated compared to Slavonian. Dark of crown extends to well below level of eye and merges with grey ear-coverts thus less clearly demarcated compared to Slavonian.
- +====Similar Species====
 +[[Slavonian Grebe]]:
==Distribution== ==Distribution==
Widespread in the both the Old and New Worlds but with a more southerly range than that of Slavonian Grebe P. auritus. Migratory in northern parts of range. Widespread in the both the Old and New Worlds but with a more southerly range than that of Slavonian Grebe P. auritus. Migratory in northern parts of range.
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'''Vagrants''' recorded in [[Norway]] and [[Finland]] and south to the [[Azores]] and [[Madeira]]. '''Vagrants''' recorded in [[Norway]] and [[Finland]] and south to the [[Azores]] and [[Madeira]].
==Taxonomy== ==Taxonomy==
-Four subspecies are recognised. Race ''californicus'' occurs in North America and ''andinus'' in Colombia, nominate race in Eurasia and ''gurneyi'' in sub-Saharan Africa.+====Subspecies<sup>[[#References|[1]]]</sup>====
 +There are 4 subspecies:
 +*''P. n. nigricollis'':
 +:*Locally in [[Eurasia]]
 +*''P. n. gurneyi'':
 +:*[[Africa]] south of the Sahara
 +*''P. n. californicus'':
 +:*[[Canada]] to [[Mexico]]; winters to [[Guatemala]]
==Habitat== ==Habitat==
Breeds on small and shallow, densely vegetated freshwaters, in Eurasia often in association with [[Black-headed Gull]]s. Breeding sites are frequently abandoned in favour of new sites for no apparent reason. Breeds on small and shallow, densely vegetated freshwaters, in Eurasia often in association with [[Black-headed Gull]]s. Breeding sites are frequently abandoned in favour of new sites for no apparent reason.
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<flashmp3>Podiceps nigricollis (song).mp3</flashmp3><br /> <flashmp3>Podiceps nigricollis (song).mp3</flashmp3><br />
''[[Media:Podiceps nigricollis (song).mp3|Listen in an external program]]'' ''[[Media:Podiceps nigricollis (song).mp3|Listen in an external program]]''
- +==References==
 +#{{Ref-Clements6thDec09}}
 +{{ref}}
==External Links== ==External Links==
{{GSearch|Podiceps+nigricollis}} {{GSearch|Podiceps+nigricollis}}

Revision as of 16:32, 12 April 2010

Podiceps nigricollis
N. American racePhoto by macshark Shoreline Lake, North California
N. American race
Photo by macshark
Shoreline Lake, North California

Alternative name: Eared Grebe

Contents

Identification

Medium-sized grebe, length 28-34cm, wingspan 57cm.
Adult Breeding

  • Blackish above; browner towards rump
  • Black breast, head and neck
  • Flanks mottled rufous and black
  • Slight crest
  • Tuft of golden-yellow
  • Extends from eye and droops down over ear coverts
Nominate race in breeding plumagePhoto by martinukChmielek, Poland, May 2002
Nominate race in breeding plumage
Photo by martinuk
Chmielek, Poland, May 2002
  • Red iris
  • Black bill
  • Blackish-grey legs

Adult Non-breeding

  • Dull grey-brown and white
  • Appears black and white from a distance
  • Dark crown extends well below eye level and merges with grey ear coverts

Juvenile: Resemble non-breeding adult, but browner with cheeks tinged buff

Non-breeding plumagePhoto by Gary ClarkPatagonia Lake, Arizona, USA
Non-breeding plumage
Photo by Gary Clark
Patagonia Lake, Arizona, USA

Flight: Upperwing shows broad white trailing edge to secondaries but lacks white of forewing base seen in Slavonian.

At all seasons slightly upturned bill distinguishes from Slavonian and in non-breeding plumage the more diffuse border between dark and light on head is useful.

Dark of crown extends to well below level of eye and merges with grey ear-coverts thus less clearly demarcated compared to Slavonian.

Similar Species

Slavonian Grebe:

Distribution

Widespread in the both the Old and New Worlds but with a more southerly range than that of Slavonian Grebe P. auritus. Migratory in northern parts of range.

North America: Breeds from southern British Columbia east to southern Manitoba and south to Baja California and southern Texas.

South America: Range very restricted and found only on mountain lakes in the Andes north of Bogota, Colombia.

Europe: Highly discontinuous breeding range but small populations persist in many Central and Eastern European countries. Largely absent from the north and west but there are small populations in Britain, central and eastern France, Belgium and central and southern Spain. Main range extends from Denmark and eastern Germany eastwards to the southern Urals and Caspian. Patchy range in the south-east with scattered populations in the Balkans and Turkey.

Asia: Range extends east to Central Asia and also breeds in eastern China and the Russian Far East.

Africa: Range also very patchy in Africa mainly in the east and south with breeding probable in Ethiopia and Kenya, Angola, Namibia and South Africa.

Winters in the Americas on the Pacific coast from British Columbia to California, across the southern USA from California to Texas and south to Guatemala.

Main wintering range in Europe lies from southern Britain and the Netherlands south to Biscay and around much of the Mediterranean and Turkey. In recent decades has begun to winter regularly in the Canary Islands.

Vagrants recorded in Norway and Finland and south to the Azores and Madeira.

Taxonomy

Subspecies[1]

There are 4 subspecies:

  • P. n. nigricollis:
  • P. n. gurneyi:
  • P. n. californicus:

Habitat

Breeds on small and shallow, densely vegetated freshwaters, in Eurasia often in association with Black-headed Gulls. Breeding sites are frequently abandoned in favour of new sites for no apparent reason.

In winter on larger, more open freshwaters, estuaries and sheltered seas.

Behaviour

Breeding

Breeding begins mid-April in south of range to June in north, probably year-round in Africa. Breeds colonially, nest is a low mound of vegetation anchored to emergent vegetation in shallow water. Eggs: 3-5 (rarely 2-8), whitish initially soon becoming stained (44 x 30mm). Incubated by both sexes but mainly female for 20-21 days. Young tended by both sexes but divide brood in later stages, young able to feed themselves at 14 days, independent at 21 days. Single-brooded, possibly double-brooded at times.

Diet

Aquatic insects and their larvae, small fish, amphibians and crustaceans.

Vocalisation

A wide range of calls when breeding including a display trill, a whistling bidder-widder-widder and a low poo-eep. Alarm call is whit repeated 2-3 times.


Listen in an external program

References

  1. Clements, JF. 2009. The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World. 6th ed., with updates to December 2009. Ithaca: Cornell Univ. Press. ISBN 978-0801445019.

External Links


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