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Common Yellowthroat

From Opus

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-[[Image:Common_Yellowthroat.jpg|thumb|550px|right|Photo by {{user|Steve+Messick|Steve Messick}}]]+[[Image:Com yellthrt.jpg|thumb|400px|right|Male, subspecies ''G. t. arizela''<br/>Photo by {{user|digishooter|digishooter}}<br />[[Bolsa Chica Ecological Reserve]], [[California]], [[USA]], March 2009]]
;[[:Category:Geothlypis|Geothlypis]] trichas ;[[:Category:Geothlypis|Geothlypis]] trichas
- 
-==Description== 
-4 1/2-6" (11-15 cm). Olive-brown above, bright yellow on throat and upper breast. Male has bold black mask, bordered above with white. Females and young males lack face mask, but may be recognized by bright yellow throat and wren-like behavior. 
==Identification== ==Identification==
-Description 4 1/2-6" (11-15 cm). Olive-brown above, bright yellow on throat and upper breast. Male has bold black mask, bordered above with white. Females and young males lack face mask, but may be recognized by bright yellow throat and wren-like behavior.+*11-15 cm (5 ins)
 +* Upper parts Olive-brown
 +* Throat and upper breast bright yellow<br />
 +*'''Male''' has bold black mask, bordered above with white.<br />
 +*'''Females''' and young males lack the face mask, but retain yellow throat.
==Distribution== ==Distribution==
-Breeds from Alaska, Ontario, and Newfoundland south throughout United States. Winters in southern states and in tropics. Accidental vagrant to [[Great Britain]] (5 records). +'''Breeding''' [[Alaska]], [[Ontario]], and [[Newfoundland]] south throughout [[United States]].<br />
 +'''Winters''' in southern states and in tropics.<br />
 +Accidental vagrant to [[Great Britain]] (5 records). <br />
 + 
 +The bird is the northernmost member of a group of yellowthroat species that occurs as far south as [[Argentina]].
 +[[Image:Commonyellowthroat1.jpg|thumb|350px|right|Female<br />Photo by {{user|Terry+O'Nolley|Terry O'Nolley}}<br />Hughes Hollow, Potomac, [[Maryland]], September 2007 ]]
 + 
==Taxonomy== ==Taxonomy==
-====Subspecies<sup>[[#References|1]]</sup>====+====Subspecies====
-*''G. t. arizela'' - breeds coastal pacific from southeastern Alaska south to central coastal California+There are 13 or 14 subspeces<sup>[[#References|1]]</sup>:
-*''G. t. campicola'' - breeds from British Columbia east to western Ontario south to Idaho east to Nebraska+[[Image:Common yellowthroat2.jpg|thumb|350px|right|Male, subspecies ''G. t. campicola''<br/>Photo by {{user|DarrenMcKenna|DarrenMcKenna}}<br />Murray Lake, [[Alberta]], [[Canada]], June 2009]]
-*''G. t. chapalensis'' - breeds in northwest Mexico+ 
-*''G. t. chryseola'' - breeds se. Arizona to s. New Mexico, w. Texas and nw. Mexico+*''G. t. arizela'' - breeds coastal pacific from southeastern [[Alaska]] south to central coastal [[California]]
-*''G. t. ignota'' - breeds in the Gulf Coast from eastern Louisiana east to whole state of Florida+*''G. t. campicola'' - breeds from [[British Columbia]] east to western [[Ontario]] south to [[Idaho]] east to [[Nebraska]]
-*''G. t. insperata'' - breeds in southern Texas (Rio Grande Valley south of Brownsville)+*''G. t. chapalensis'' - breeds in northwest [[Mexico]]
-*''G. t. melanops'' - breeds in central Mexico+*''G. t. chryseola'' - breeds se. [[Arizona]] to south [[New Mexico]], west [[Texas]] and north west [[Mexico]]
-*''G. t. modesta'' - breeds in western Mexico+*''G. t. ignota'' - breeds in the Gulf Coast from eastern [[Louisiana]] east to whole state of [[Florida]]
-*''G. t. occidentalis'' - breeds from central Washington south to Nevada east to western Kansas and New Mexico+*''G. t. insperata'' - breeds in southern [[Texas]] (Rio Grande Valley south of Brownsville)
-*''G. t. scirpicola'' - breeds in southern California, northern Baja California, southern Nevada, and western Arizona+*''G. t. melanops'' - breeds in central [[Mexico]]
 +*''G. t. modesta'' - breeds in western [[Mexico]]
 +*''G. t. occidentalis'' - breeds from central [[Washington]] south to [[Nevada]] east to western [[Kansas]] and [[New Mexico]]
 +*''G. t. scirpicola'' - breeds in southern [[California]], northern Baja California, southern [[Nevada]], and western [[Arizona]]
*''G. t. sinuosa'' - breeds in San Francisco bay region *''G. t. sinuosa'' - breeds in San Francisco bay region
-*''G. t. trichas'' - breeds throughout the east from western Ontario south to North Carolina and eastern Texas+*''G. t. trichas'' - breeds throughout the east from western [[Ontario]] south to [[North Carolina]] and eastern [[Texas]]
-*''G. t. typhicolai'' - breeds from central eastern Mississippi east to coastal Carolinas and Georgia+*''G. t. typhicolai'' - breeds from central eastern [[Mississippi]] east to coastal Carolinas and [[Georgia]]
-*''G. t. yukonicola'' - breeds in Yukon Territory and northern British Columbia+*''G. t. yukonicola'' - breeds in [[Yukon Territory]] and northern [[British Columbia]]<br />
 + 
 +''yukonicola'' is not generally recognised.
 + 
Hybridization occurred once with [[Mourning Warbler]]. Hybridization occurred once with [[Mourning Warbler]].
==Habitat== ==Habitat==
 +[[Image:Yellowthroat2 sm.jpg|thumb|350px|right|Juvenile<br />Photo by {{user|bhowdy|bhowdy}}<br />Kyker Bottom Refuge, [[Tennessee]], USA, August 2008]]
Moist thickets and grassy marshes, almost anywhere where it is damp or with water. Moist thickets and grassy marshes, almost anywhere where it is damp or with water.
==Behaviour== ==Behaviour==
-Nesting 3-5 white eggs, with brown and black spots, in a loose mass of grass, sedge, and bark, lined with rootlets, hair, and fine grass, and concealed on or near the ground in a dense clump of weeds or grass.+Rather wren-like.
-==Voice==+====Breeding====
-Loud, fast witchity-witchity-witchity-witchity-wit or which-is-it, which-is-it, which-is-it. Call a sharp chip.+Three to five white eggs, with brown and black spots, in a loose mass of grass, sedge, and bark, lined with rootlets, hair, and fine grass, and concealed on or near the ground in a dense clump of weeds or grass, in a marshy area.
-==Discussion==+ 
-A small bird with a yellow throat, skulking in the grass or weeds of a marshy spot, is almost certainly a Common Yellowthroat, whose cheerful song is well known. At the height of the breeding season, the males perform an attractive flight display, mounting into the air while uttering a jumble of high-pitched notes, then bouncing back into the grass while giving the usual song. To foil predators, parents drop down into the thick of the grasses or weeds, secretly approach their well-hidden nest, deliver the food, and depart by another route. The bird is the northernmost member of a group of yellowthroat species that occurs as far south as Argentina.+At the height of the breeding season, the males perform an attractive flight display, mounting into the air while uttering a jumble of high-pitched notes, then bouncing back into the grass while giving the usual song. To foil predators, parents drop down into the thick of the grasses or weeds, secretly approach their well-hidden nest, deliver the food, and depart by another route.
 +====Vocalisation====
 +'''Song''': Loud, fast ''witchity-witchity-witchity-witchity-wit'' or ''which-is-it, which-is-it, which-is-it''.<br />
 +'''Call''': a sharp ''chip''.
==References== ==References==
# Dunn, Jon; Garrett, Kimball. 1997. ''A Field Guide to Warblers of North America''. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 9780395783214 # Dunn, Jon; Garrett, Kimball. 1997. ''A Field Guide to Warblers of North America''. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 9780395783214
-# Clements, James F. 2007. ''The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World''. 6th ed., with updates to October 2007. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. ISBN 9780801445019+#{{Ref-Clements6thAug11}}#e-Nature
-e-Nature+{{ref}}
==External Links== ==External Links==
{{GSearch|Geothlypis+trichas}} {{GSearch|Geothlypis+trichas}}
-[[Category:Birds]][[Category:Geothlypis]]+<br />
 +{{Video|Common_Yellowthroat}}
 + 
 +[[Category:Birds]][[Category:Geothlypis]] [[Category:Videos]]

Revision as of 21:42, 19 February 2012

Male, subspecies G. t. arizelaPhoto by digishooterBolsa Chica Ecological Reserve, California, USA, March 2009
Male, subspecies G. t. arizela
Photo by digishooter
Bolsa Chica Ecological Reserve, California, USA, March 2009
Geothlypis trichas

Contents

Identification

  • 11-15 cm (5 ins)
  • Upper parts Olive-brown
  • Throat and upper breast bright yellow
  • Male has bold black mask, bordered above with white.
  • Females and young males lack the face mask, but retain yellow throat.

Distribution

Breeding Alaska, Ontario, and Newfoundland south throughout United States.
Winters in southern states and in tropics.
Accidental vagrant to Great Britain (5 records).

The bird is the northernmost member of a group of yellowthroat species that occurs as far south as Argentina.

FemalePhoto by Terry O'NolleyHughes Hollow, Potomac, Maryland, September 2007
Female
Photo by Terry O'Nolley
Hughes Hollow, Potomac, Maryland, September 2007

Taxonomy

Subspecies

There are 13 or 14 subspeces1:

Male, subspecies G. t. campicolaPhoto by DarrenMcKennaMurray Lake, Alberta, Canada, June 2009
Male, subspecies G. t. campicola
Photo by DarrenMcKenna
Murray Lake, Alberta, Canada, June 2009

yukonicola is not generally recognised.

Hybridization occurred once with Mourning Warbler.

Habitat

JuvenilePhoto by bhowdyKyker Bottom Refuge, Tennessee, USA, August 2008
Juvenile
Photo by bhowdy
Kyker Bottom Refuge, Tennessee, USA, August 2008

Moist thickets and grassy marshes, almost anywhere where it is damp or with water.

Behaviour

Rather wren-like.

Breeding

Three to five white eggs, with brown and black spots, in a loose mass of grass, sedge, and bark, lined with rootlets, hair, and fine grass, and concealed on or near the ground in a dense clump of weeds or grass, in a marshy area.

At the height of the breeding season, the males perform an attractive flight display, mounting into the air while uttering a jumble of high-pitched notes, then bouncing back into the grass while giving the usual song. To foil predators, parents drop down into the thick of the grasses or weeds, secretly approach their well-hidden nest, deliver the food, and depart by another route.

Vocalisation

Song: Loud, fast witchity-witchity-witchity-witchity-wit or which-is-it, which-is-it, which-is-it.
Call: a sharp chip.

References

  1. Dunn, Jon; Garrett, Kimball. 1997. A Field Guide to Warblers of North America. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 9780395783214
  2. Clements, JF. 2011. The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World. 6th ed., with updates to August 2011. Ithaca: Cornell Univ. Press. ISBN 978-0801445019. Spreadsheet available at http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/downloadable-clements-checklist
  3. e-Nature

External Links


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