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Dunnock

From Opus

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-[[Image:Hedge_Accentor.jpg|thumb|550px|right|Photo by {{user|Steve+G|Steve G}}]]+'''Alternative name: Hedge Accentor, Hedge Sparrow'''
 +[[Image:Dunnock1164.jpg|thumb|550px|right|Nominate<br />Photo by {{user|Robin59|Robin59}}<br />Stolberg/NRW, [[Germany]], January 2012]]
;[[:Category: Prunella|Prunella]] modularis ;[[:Category: Prunella|Prunella]] modularis
==Identification== ==Identification==
Line 8: Line 9:
*Brown eye *Brown eye
*Fine dark bill *Fine dark bill
 +====Identification Hints====
 +One of the things to look for is the fine, insect-eating bill which immediately separates it from a sparrow. (In the past the species was often called 'hedge sparrow'.) The grey neckband is also a good field mark, which immediately rules out any warbler (which its song might mistakenly suggest). It also lacks the pale supercilium which many warblers exhibit.
 +[[Image:Hedge_Accentor.jpg|thumb|350px|right|Subspecies ''occidentalis''<br />Photo by {{user|Steve+G|Steve G}}<br />West Fife, [[Scotland]], December 2003]]
==Distribution== ==Distribution==
 +From the [[British Isles]] to central [[Europe]] and from the Balkans to the Caucasus birds are mainly resident or undergo only short-distance dispersal. Further east and north populations are more strongly migratory and the winter range extends from southern [[Spain]] to [[Turkey]] and the [[Middle East]] and on many Mediterranean islands. Scarce or rare winter visitor to parts of North [[Africa]].
 +
 +'''Vagrants''' recorded north to [[Svalbard]], Bear Island, [[Iceland]] and the [[Faroes]], and in the south as far as the [[Canary Islands]], [[Mauritania]], [[Algeria]], [[Libya]] and [[Kuwait]].
 +
Seen in the [[UK]] all year. Found in North and Eastern [[Europe]] only in summer. Seen in the [[UK]] all year. Found in North and Eastern [[Europe]] only in summer.
==Taxonomy== ==Taxonomy==
-Also known as Hedge Accentor (Sibley and Monroe 1996).+====Subspecies====
-====Subspecies<sup>[[#References|[1]]]</sup>====+There are 8 subspecies<sup>[[#References|[1]]]</sup>:
-There are 8 subspecies:+*''P. m. hebridium'': are darker than ''occidentalis'' with rufous-brown plumage on wings.
-*''P. m. hebridium'':+
:*[[Ireland]], [[Outer Hebrides]], [[Inner Hebrides]] and western [[Scotland]] :*[[Ireland]], [[Outer Hebrides]], [[Inner Hebrides]] and western [[Scotland]]
-*''P. m. occidentalis'':+*''P. m. occidentalis'': are darker than birds from mainland Europe, especially on head and neck but also below
:*Eastern [[Scotland]], [[England]], [[Wales]] and western [[France]] :*Eastern [[Scotland]], [[England]], [[Wales]] and western [[France]]
*''P. m. modularis'': *''P. m. modularis'':
Line 26: Line 33:
*''P. m. fuscata'': *''P. m. fuscata'':
:*Mountains of Crimean Peninsula :*Mountains of Crimean Peninsula
-*''P. m. euxina'':+*''P. m. euxina'': has paler streaking and paler grey crown than nominate
:*Northern [[Turkey]] to western Caucasus Mountains :*Northern [[Turkey]] to western Caucasus Mountains
-*''P. m. obscura'':+*''P. m. obscura'': much paler and duller than other races with whitish mottling on breast
:*Caucasus and eastern [[Turkey]] to northern [[Iran]]; winters to mountains of [[Lebanon]] :*Caucasus and eastern [[Turkey]] to northern [[Iran]]; winters to mountains of [[Lebanon]]
==Habitat== ==Habitat==
-Hedges, woodland edges, parks and gardens. In mountains and the north occurs in pine, larch and spruce forests, and in willow, birch and alder scrub.+Found in woodland and scrub, city parks and gardens, in hedgerows and copses on farmland. In mountains and the north occurs in pine, larch and spruce forests, and in willow, birch and alder scrub.
 + 
 +Breeds in parks, gardens, open woodland, heaths and commons with gorse or scrub, areas with hedges and thick shrubbery, also young conifer stands; but in northern [[Europe]] mainly in dense spruce plantations, also in juniper country and upland forest.
==Behaviour== ==Behaviour==
 +Resident; migratory in north. Rather shy and retiring in summer.<br />
 +It is a rather unobtrusive bird, sometimes hopping around flowerbeds or at the base of bushes but it is not particularly shy and you quite often see it on patios or roadsides.
====Breeding==== ====Breeding====
-Nest small grassy cup, lined with hair, moss, feathers, wool in hedge or bush. 2 or 3 broods.+Nests in thick bush or low down in conifer. The nest is a small grassy cup, lined with hair, moss, feathers, and wool. There may be 2 or 3 broods.
====Diet==== ====Diet====
Forages on the ground, often close to cover, picks up seeds and small insects. Forages on the ground, often close to cover, picks up seeds and small insects.
====Vocalisation==== ====Vocalisation====
 +Loud penetrating Tseep. Song high pitched fast warble.<br />
<flashmp3>Prunella modularis (song).mp3</flashmp3><br /> <flashmp3>Prunella modularis (song).mp3</flashmp3><br />
''[[Media:Prunella modularis (song).mp3|Listen in an external program]]'' ''[[Media:Prunella modularis (song).mp3|Listen in an external program]]''
==References== ==References==
-#{{Ref-Clements6thDec08}}+#{{Ref-Clements6thAug11}}#BF Member observations
{{ref}} {{ref}}
==External Links== ==External Links==
{{GSearch|Prunella+modularis}} {{GSearch|Prunella+modularis}}
-[[Category:Birds]] [[Category:Prunella]] [[Category:Bird Songs]]+<br />
 +{{Video|Dunnock}}
 +[[Category:Birds]] [[Category:Prunella]] [[Category:Bird Songs]][[Category:Videos]]

Revision as of 22:36, 20 February 2012

Alternative name: Hedge Accentor, Hedge Sparrow

NominatePhoto by Robin59Stolberg/NRW, Germany, January 2012
Nominate
Photo by Robin59
Stolberg/NRW, Germany, January 2012
Prunella modularis

Contents

Identification

L. 13-14.5 cm

  • Black and brown streaks on back
  • Streaked brown cap
  • Grey throat
  • Brown eye
  • Fine dark bill

Identification Hints

One of the things to look for is the fine, insect-eating bill which immediately separates it from a sparrow. (In the past the species was often called 'hedge sparrow'.) The grey neckband is also a good field mark, which immediately rules out any warbler (which its song might mistakenly suggest). It also lacks the pale supercilium which many warblers exhibit.

Subspecies occidentalisPhoto by Steve GWest Fife, Scotland, December 2003
Subspecies occidentalis
Photo by Steve G
West Fife, Scotland, December 2003

Distribution

From the British Isles to central Europe and from the Balkans to the Caucasus birds are mainly resident or undergo only short-distance dispersal. Further east and north populations are more strongly migratory and the winter range extends from southern Spain to Turkey and the Middle East and on many Mediterranean islands. Scarce or rare winter visitor to parts of North Africa.

Vagrants recorded north to Svalbard, Bear Island, Iceland and the Faroes, and in the south as far as the Canary Islands, Mauritania, Algeria, Libya and Kuwait.

Seen in the UK all year. Found in North and Eastern Europe only in summer.

Taxonomy

Subspecies

There are 8 subspecies[1]:

  • P. m. hebridium: are darker than occidentalis with rufous-brown plumage on wings.
  • P. m. occidentalis: are darker than birds from mainland Europe, especially on head and neck but also below
  • P. m. modularis:
  • Northern and central Europe; winters to western Mediterranean islands and North Africa
  • P. m. mabbotti:
  • P. m. meinertzhageni:
  • P. m. fuscata:
  • Mountains of Crimean Peninsula
  • P. m. euxina: has paler streaking and paler grey crown than nominate
  • Northern Turkey to western Caucasus Mountains
  • P. m. obscura: much paler and duller than other races with whitish mottling on breast

Habitat

Found in woodland and scrub, city parks and gardens, in hedgerows and copses on farmland. In mountains and the north occurs in pine, larch and spruce forests, and in willow, birch and alder scrub.

Breeds in parks, gardens, open woodland, heaths and commons with gorse or scrub, areas with hedges and thick shrubbery, also young conifer stands; but in northern Europe mainly in dense spruce plantations, also in juniper country and upland forest.

Behaviour

Resident; migratory in north. Rather shy and retiring in summer.
It is a rather unobtrusive bird, sometimes hopping around flowerbeds or at the base of bushes but it is not particularly shy and you quite often see it on patios or roadsides.

Breeding

Nests in thick bush or low down in conifer. The nest is a small grassy cup, lined with hair, moss, feathers, and wool. There may be 2 or 3 broods.

Diet

Forages on the ground, often close to cover, picks up seeds and small insects.

Vocalisation

Loud penetrating Tseep. Song high pitched fast warble.


Listen in an external program

References

  1. Clements, JF. 2011. The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World. 6th ed., with updates to August 2011. Ithaca: Cornell Univ. Press. ISBN 978-0801445019. Spreadsheet available at http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/downloadable-clements-checklist
  2. BF Member observations

External Links


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