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Dusky Indigobird

From Opus

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Revision as of 11:23, 23 May 2007 (edit)
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(Picture of juvenile. Some minor re-organisation. References)
 
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-{{stub}}+'''Alternative name: Variable Indigobird'''
-;Vidua funerea+[[Image:23133disky indigobird DB.jpg|thumb|550px|right|Male in breeding plumage.<br />Photo by {{user|megan+perkins|megan perkins}}<br />Creighton, [[South Africa]], January 2007]]
-[[Image:23133disky indigobird DB.jpg|thumb|550px|right|Photo by megan perkins<br />Photo taken: Creighton, South Africa.]]+;[[:Category:Vidua|Vidua]] funerea
- +
==Identification== ==Identification==
 +Length 11-12 cm, mass 15 g<br />
 +'''Adult breeding male''': Dull bluish or greenish black; Tail and flight feathers blackish brown. Eyes dark brown, bill white or pale pink, legs and feet orange-red.<br />
 +'''Adult non-breeding male and adult female''': Head with bold buff and dark brown stripes and back buff, streaked black. Greyish white below, darker on breast and flanks.
 +====Similar Species====
 +The southern race can be distiguished from other Indigobirds by the pale bill and orange-red legs and feet. However, the northern race (found north of the Limpopo River) is very similar to the [[Purple Indigobird]]; here it is best distiguished by call.
 +[[Image:2006_1118_Vidua_funerea.jpg|thumb|350px|right|Female<br />Photo by {{user|Alan+Manson|Alan Manson}}<br />Pietermaritzburg, [[South Africa]]]]
==Distribution== ==Distribution==
 +Sub-Saharan [[Africa]]. Discontinuous; [[Malawi]], much of [[Zambia]], eastern [[Zimbabwe]], parts of [[Mozambique]], [[Swaziland]], [[Lesotho]] and eastern [[South Africa]]. There are isolated populations in [[Tanzania]], [[Kenya]], [[Cameroon]] and [[Nigeria]].
==Taxonomy== ==Taxonomy==
 +''Vidua funerea'' has two subspecies:
 +*''V. f. funerea'' from eastern [[South Africa]], [[Swaziland]], [[Lesotho]] and [[Mozambique]] south of the Limpopo River; legs and feet orange-red in adult breeding male and pale purplish grey or pale orange in female; and
 +*''V. f. nigerrima'' from eastern [[Zimbabwe]] northwards; slightly smaller than the nominate race; the legs and feet are pale purple in both sexes.
 +[[Image:800bb1aPC024559.jpg|thumb|350px|right|Juvenile<br />Photo by {{user|CollinBax|CollinBax}}<br />Imfolozi, [[KwaZulu-Natal]], December 2009]]
==Habitat== ==Habitat==
 +Woodland, forest edges, grassy rank vegetation, cultivated lands and gardens.
==Behaviour== ==Behaviour==
 +====Diet====
 +Forages on bare and sparsely vegetated ground for small seeds. Takes termite aletes in flight. Females and nonbreeding males are inconspicuous, often feeding in mixed-species flocks.
 +====Breeding====
 +The Dusky Indigobird is a brood parasite, the host species being the [[African Firefinch]].
 +====Vocalisation====
 +Males are conspicuous in breeding season when they call for long periods from a prominent perch.<br />
 +Male gives harsh 'chichichichi' call<br />
 +'''Song''': incorporates both scratchy notes and trills and tinkling phrases from the song of the [[African Firefinch]] (host).
 +==References==
 +#{{Ref-Clements6thAug11}}
 +{{ref}}
==External Links== ==External Links==
{{GSearch|Vidua+funerea}} {{GSearch|Vidua+funerea}}
- +[[Category:Birds]] [[Category:Vidua]]
-[[Category:Birds]]+

Current revision

Alternative name: Variable Indigobird

Male in breeding plumage.Photo by megan perkinsCreighton, South Africa, January 2007
Male in breeding plumage.
Photo by megan perkins
Creighton, South Africa, January 2007
Vidua funerea

Contents

[edit] Identification

Length 11-12 cm, mass 15 g
Adult breeding male: Dull bluish or greenish black; Tail and flight feathers blackish brown. Eyes dark brown, bill white or pale pink, legs and feet orange-red.
Adult non-breeding male and adult female: Head with bold buff and dark brown stripes and back buff, streaked black. Greyish white below, darker on breast and flanks.

[edit] Similar Species

The southern race can be distiguished from other Indigobirds by the pale bill and orange-red legs and feet. However, the northern race (found north of the Limpopo River) is very similar to the Purple Indigobird; here it is best distiguished by call.

FemalePhoto by Alan MansonPietermaritzburg, South Africa
Female
Photo by Alan Manson
Pietermaritzburg, South Africa

[edit] Distribution

Sub-Saharan Africa. Discontinuous; Malawi, much of Zambia, eastern Zimbabwe, parts of Mozambique, Swaziland, Lesotho and eastern South Africa. There are isolated populations in Tanzania, Kenya, Cameroon and Nigeria.

[edit] Taxonomy

Vidua funerea has two subspecies:

  • V. f. funerea from eastern South Africa, Swaziland, Lesotho and Mozambique south of the Limpopo River; legs and feet orange-red in adult breeding male and pale purplish grey or pale orange in female; and
  • V. f. nigerrima from eastern Zimbabwe northwards; slightly smaller than the nominate race; the legs and feet are pale purple in both sexes.
JuvenilePhoto by CollinBaxImfolozi, KwaZulu-Natal, December 2009
Juvenile
Photo by CollinBax
Imfolozi, KwaZulu-Natal, December 2009

[edit] Habitat

Woodland, forest edges, grassy rank vegetation, cultivated lands and gardens.

[edit] Behaviour

[edit] Diet

Forages on bare and sparsely vegetated ground for small seeds. Takes termite aletes in flight. Females and nonbreeding males are inconspicuous, often feeding in mixed-species flocks.

[edit] Breeding

The Dusky Indigobird is a brood parasite, the host species being the African Firefinch.

[edit] Vocalisation

Males are conspicuous in breeding season when they call for long periods from a prominent perch.
Male gives harsh 'chichichichi' call
Song: incorporates both scratchy notes and trills and tinkling phrases from the song of the African Firefinch (host).

[edit] References

  1. Clements, JF. 2011. The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World. 6th ed., with updates to August 2011. Ithaca: Cornell Univ. Press. ISBN 978-0801445019. Spreadsheet available at http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/downloadable-clements-checklist

[edit] External Links

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