Join for FREE
It only takes a minute!

Welcome to BirdForum.
BirdForum is the net's largest birding community, dedicated to wild birds and birding, and is absolutely FREE! You are most welcome to register for an account, which allows you to take part in lively discussions in the forum, post your pictures in the gallery and more.

Personal tools
Main Categories

Eurasian Tree Sparrow

From Opus

(Difference between revisions)
Revision as of 10:28, 27 May 2010 (edit)
Deliatodd-18346 (Talk | contribs)
(Link)
← Previous diff
Revision as of 08:49, 7 February 2011 (edit) (undo)
Deliatodd-18346 (Talk | contribs)
(Map size adjusted)
Next diff →
(One intermediate revision not shown.)
Line 1: Line 1:
[[Image:Eurasian_Tree_Sparrow.jpg|thumb|550px|right|Photo by {{user|rayh|rayh}}<br />Carsington Water, [[England]], February 2004]] [[Image:Eurasian_Tree_Sparrow.jpg|thumb|550px|right|Photo by {{user|rayh|rayh}}<br />Carsington Water, [[England]], February 2004]]
 +'''Alternative names: Tree Sparrow; European Tree Sparrow'''
;[[: Category:Passer|Passer]] montanus ;[[: Category:Passer|Passer]] montanus
==Identification== ==Identification==
-Chestnut crown and nape. White cheeks with a black spot.+14 - 15cm. A small, neat-looking sparrow:
 +* Chestnut crown and nape
 +* White cheeks with a black spot
 +* Small black bib not expanding on breast
 +* Narrow white neck-collar
 +* Black-streaked brown back
 +* Distinct white wing-bar
 +* Dusky underparts
 +Sexes and ages similar.<br />
 +The subspecies mainly differ in plumage tones and in size. Those in arid regions tend to be paler (eg. ''dilutus''), those in tropical humid areas darker (eg. ''malaccensis'')
====Similar Species==== ====Similar Species====
[[House Sparrow]], which has a grey head and lacks the white cheeks. [[House Sparrow]], which has a grey head and lacks the white cheeks.
==Distribution== ==Distribution==
-Widespread and still fairly common but decreasing in parts of western [[Europe]] including [[Britain]]. +{| cellpadding="5"
- +|-
-Breeds in coastal [[Ireland]] and [[Britain]] (but rather uncommon in the north), and from western [[France]], north and eastern [[Iberia]] east across [[Europe]] to the Urals and Caspian reaching coastal and southern [[Scandinavia]], the [[Baltic States]] and the White Sea. In the south occurs on the Mediterranean coasts of [[Spain]] and [[France]], [[Italy]] and [[Sicily]], the Balkans, patchily in west, central and northern [[Turkey]] and the [[Caucasus]]. Formerly bred in the [[Faroes]] and has bred [[Morocco]], recently in [[Malta]] and Gozo] introduced to [[Sardinia]].+| rowspan=2 valign="center"|
- +[[Image:Map-Eurasian Tree Sparrow.jpg|350px|left]]
-Rare breeder in the [[Canary Islands]], found only on [[Gran Canaria]]. There is also a small population in St. Louis, [[Missouri]], in the [[USA]].+|Widespread from [[Europe]] east over [[Russia]] to [[China]] and southeast [[Asia]]. Introduced populations in [[Australia]] and the [[US]] (St. Louis, [[Missouri]]).<br />
- +In Europe breeds in coastal [[Ireland]] and [[Britain]] (but rather uncommon in the north), and from western [[France]], north and eastern [[Iberia]] east across [[Europe]] to the Urals and Caspian reaching coastal and southern [[Scandinavia]], the [[Baltic States]] and the White Sea. In the south occurs on the Mediterranean coasts of [[Spain]] and [[France]], [[Italy]] and [[Sicily]], the Balkans, patchily in west, central and northern [[Turkey]] and the [[Caucasus]]. Formerly bred in the [[Faroes]] and has bred [[Morocco]], recently in [[Malta]] and Gozo] introduced to [[Sardinia]].
-Resident or partial migrant over most of range and winter visitor to the larger Mediterranean islands. +Rare breeder in the [[Canary Islands]], found only on [[Gran Canaria]].<br />
- +Resident or partial migrant over most of range and winter visitor to the larger Mediterranean islands. Vagrants recorded in [[Gibraltar]] and North-West [[Africa]], [[Egypt]] and [[Israel]].
-Vagrants recorded in [[Gibraltar]] and North-West [[Africa]], [[Egypt]] and [[Israel]].+|-
- +|<font size=4>Legend</font><br />
-Introduced to [[Australia]]. Now found in a few places in the south-east. Locally abundant.+'''<font color="#336600" style="background-color: black">•</font>''' ''Passer montanus''; year-round<br />
 +<font size="1">Maps/Texts consulted<sup>[[#References|2]]</sup></font>
 +|}
==Taxonomy== ==Taxonomy==
====Subspecies<sup>[[#References|[1]]]</sup>==== ====Subspecies<sup>[[#References|[1]]]</sup>====
Line 34: Line 46:
==Behaviour== ==Behaviour==
Highly gregarious, this bird prefers the vicinity of humans. Highly gregarious, this bird prefers the vicinity of humans.
 +====Diet====
 +Feeds mainly on seed of herbs, grasses and cereals. Takes also animal food like spiders and insects during breeding season.
====Breeding==== ====Breeding====
Secondary cavity nester. Not aggressive or pugnacious like the [[House Sparrow]], but may attempt to claim a box used by another bird. Secondary cavity nester. Not aggressive or pugnacious like the [[House Sparrow]], but may attempt to claim a box used by another bird.
Line 40: Line 54:
''[[Media:Passer montanus (song).mp3|Listen in an external program]]'' ''[[Media:Passer montanus (song).mp3|Listen in an external program]]''
==References== ==References==
-#{{Ref-Clements6thDec09}}+#{{Ref-Clements6thDec09}}#{{Ref-HBWVol14}}
{{ref}} {{ref}}
==External Links== ==External Links==
Line 46: Line 60:
<br /> <br />
{{Video|Eurasian_Tree_Sparrow}} {{Video|Eurasian_Tree_Sparrow}}
-[[Category:Birds]] [[Category:Passer]][[Category:Bird Songs]] [[Category:Videos]]+[[Category:Birds]] [[Category:Passer]][[Category:Bird Songs]] [[Category:Videos]] [[Category:Maps]]

Revision as of 08:49, 7 February 2011

Photo by rayhCarsington Water, England, February 2004
Photo by rayh
Carsington Water, England, February 2004

Alternative names: Tree Sparrow; European Tree Sparrow

Passer montanus

Contents

Identification

14 - 15cm. A small, neat-looking sparrow:

  • Chestnut crown and nape
  • White cheeks with a black spot
  • Small black bib not expanding on breast
  • Narrow white neck-collar
  • Black-streaked brown back
  • Distinct white wing-bar
  • Dusky underparts

Sexes and ages similar.
The subspecies mainly differ in plumage tones and in size. Those in arid regions tend to be paler (eg. dilutus), those in tropical humid areas darker (eg. malaccensis)

Similar Species

House Sparrow, which has a grey head and lacks the white cheeks.

Distribution

Widespread from Europe east over Russia to China and southeast Asia. Introduced populations in Australia and the US (St. Louis, Missouri).

In Europe breeds in coastal Ireland and Britain (but rather uncommon in the north), and from western France, north and eastern Iberia east across Europe to the Urals and Caspian reaching coastal and southern Scandinavia, the Baltic States and the White Sea. In the south occurs on the Mediterranean coasts of Spain and France, Italy and Sicily, the Balkans, patchily in west, central and northern Turkey and the Caucasus. Formerly bred in the Faroes and has bred Morocco, recently in Malta and Gozo] introduced to Sardinia. Rare breeder in the Canary Islands, found only on Gran Canaria.
Resident or partial migrant over most of range and winter visitor to the larger Mediterranean islands. Vagrants recorded in Gibraltar and North-West Africa, Egypt and Israel.

Legend

Passer montanus; year-round
Maps/Texts consulted2

Taxonomy

Subspecies[1]

  • P. m. montanus: Europe to north Africa, northern Mongolia, Manchuria and Sea of Okhotsk
  • P. m. transcaucasicus: Southern Caucasus (Black Sea coast of Georgia to northern Iran)
    • Generally duller and greyer above, whiter below
  • P. m. dilutus: Transcaspia to western Pakistan, Gobi Desert and western China (Xinjiang)
  • P. m. dybowskii: Eastern Asia (lower Amur River to Manchuria and northern Korea)
  • P. m. kansuensis: Western China (Zaidam basin and northern Gansu)
  • P. m. iubilaeus: Eastern China (Liaoning to lower Yangtze River and Shaanxi)
  • P. m. obscuratus: Nepal to north-eastern India, Myanmar and west-central China (Sichuan to Hubei)
  • P. m. saturatus: Southern Kuril Island, Japan, South Korea, Ryukyu Island, Taiwan and south-eastern China
  • P. m. malaccensis: Central Myanmar, Malaya, Hainan, Vietnam and western Indonesia

Habitat

Open woodland and along woodland edges, parkland and farmland with copses and hedgerows. In parts of the range quite frequent in suburbs or even in urban areas.

Behaviour

Highly gregarious, this bird prefers the vicinity of humans.

Diet

Feeds mainly on seed of herbs, grasses and cereals. Takes also animal food like spiders and insects during breeding season.

Breeding

Secondary cavity nester. Not aggressive or pugnacious like the House Sparrow, but may attempt to claim a box used by another bird.

Vocalisation


Listen in an external program

References

  1. Clements, JF. 2009. The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World. 6th ed., with updates to December 2009. Ithaca: Cornell Univ. Press. ISBN 978-0801445019.
  2. Del Hoyo, J, A Elliott, and D Christie, eds. 2009. Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 14: Bush-shrikes to Old World Sparrows. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. ISBN 978-8496553507

External Links


Advertisement


Fatbirder's Top 1000 Birding Websites

Search the net with ask.com
Help support BirdForum
Ask.com and get

Page generated in 0.39501905 seconds with 6 queries
All times are GMT. The time now is 02:41.