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From southeast Siberia, Korea, Japan, east and south China to Burma, Bangladesh, Nepal to Pakistan and south to India and Sri Lanka. Northeastern birds winter in Indochina, the Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia. Fairly common.
Five subspecies recognized. Rasmussen (Birds of South Asia - The Ripley Guide) proposes a split into Indian Jungle Nightjar Caprimulgus indicus and Grey Nightjar Caprimulgus jotaka. The first would occour in South India, the latter in the rest of the range.
Forests (different types), open woodland, scrubland, farmland, plantations. In the Himalayas in sparsely vegetated ravines, in Sri Lanka in stony fields. In winter also recorded in big cities.
Nocturnal. Roosts in trees (quite high) and on boulders. Sings from perch or ground.
MP3 recording of Caprimulgus indicus at http://movie.geocities.jp/qusoappa/infotori4/index.html