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|Monday 3rd September 2012, 15:41||#1|
Join Date: Aug 2005
escape distance (ED) from humans
escape flight distance
escape distance (ED)
Here are few sample links found in the Internet:
Fernandez-Juricic, E, Jimenez MD, Lucas E, Alert distance as an alternative measure of bird tolerance to human disturbance- implications for park design, Environmental Conservation (2001), pp. 263-269
Daniel T. Blumstein, Flight-Initiation Distance in Birds Is Dependent on Intruder Starting Distance, The Journal of Wildlife Management, Vol. 67, No. 4 (Oct., 2003), pp. 852-857
Karsten Laursen, Johnny Kahlert & John Frikke. Laursen, K., Kahlert, J. & Frikke, J., Factors affecting escape distances of staging waterbirds., Wildlife Biology (2005) 11:1, 13-19
Thomas Bregnballe, Kim Aaen & Anthony D. Fox, Escape distances from human pedestrians by staging waterbirds in a Danish wetland, Wildfowl (2009) Special Issue 2: 115–130
The escape distance (ED) most of all depends on:
and i.e. on:
2) age - young birds are less timid, for example dunlin
3) location - mallards or Canada geese are less shy in a park then somewhere in the wild. Or tits and nuthatches near the feeder or in the park are less shy then in the wild. They sometimes can sit on the camera lens hood several centimeters from it's front lens, on human hand to eat seeds ...
4) season - breeding or winter (?)
Grey Heron Ardea cinerea EDs increase through the autumn (Bregnballe 2009)
5) origin - wintering birds from north seem to be less shy then native
6) given individual
7) color of clothes of an observer and observer's behaviour
From the literature above (mainly Laursen 2005):
8) hunting status - quarry species have longer EDs than non-quarry ... (Laursen 2005, Bregnballe 2009)
I noticed that ducks in hunting season sometimes appear to be horribly nervous.
9) body mass - ED increases with body mass (Laursen 2005, Bregnballe 2009)
10) flock size
11) flock composition - birds in mixed flocks of Mallard Anas platyrhynchos and Teal Anas crecca react at longer distances than those in single species flocks for either species. (Bregnballe 2009)
12) visibility of the stimulus to the birds (Bregnballe 2009)
13) wind force
14) vegetation height (Bregnballe 2009)
10,13 - sometimes positive, other times negative relation ...
Basically it is almost impossible to take pictures of birds without hide.
Some of people say, that escape distance in some cases (like cranes) equals shooting range of an arch ... Because all birds having shorter escape distance were shot and could not pass their genes to further generations unfortunately ...
This message was supposed to be part of the thread:
but I created separate thread.
Lens focal length - scope magnification - distance calculator
Database templates for observations of birds and other wildlife for MS Access (download) v. 2013-02-25
Last edited by locustella : Monday 3rd September 2012 at 17:42.
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