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Old Thursday 29th December 2016, 18:00   #1
Taphrospilus
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Lophornis chalybeus and author?

If I read Zoonomen about Lophornis chalybeus I feel this is a valid question there:

Quote:
Why the Bechstein name (with a full decade of priority) is not the valid name is not clear to me.
Here we can find the Temminck publication and of course from the description indicates Vieillot as author.

Nevertheless I haven't seen the Bechstein publication mentioned in Zoonomen. Or is his...

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Trochilus chalybeus Bechstein 1811 Allg.Uebers.Vogel[Latham] 4 1 p.222
...a synonym for another hummingbird?
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Old Friday 30th December 2016, 03:37   #2
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"Why the Bechstein name (with a full decade of priority) is not the valid name is not clear to me."
Maybe because no one has read it in 200 years. See the discussion of vol. 4 of Bechstein here:
http://www.birdforum.net/showpost.ph...9&postcount=23 .
Bechstein according to Zoonomen cites "Based on Actes.Soc.Hist.Nat. Paris, I. pt.1 1792, p.116, no.48"
This description without a name is actually on page 117 no. 48.
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/i...e/151/mode/1up .
Is this a description of chalybeus? edit. i'd say so! One of the words in the description is chalyba-eo-ce-aruleis with ligatures .
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Old Friday 30th December 2016, 08:49   #3
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Quote:
Originally Posted by mb1848 View Post
Bechstein according to Zoonomen cites "Based on Actes.Soc.Hist.Nat. Paris, I. pt.1 1792, p.116, no.48"
This description without a name is actually on page 117 no. 48.
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/i...e/151/mode/1up .
Is this a description of chalybeus? edit. i'd say so! One of the words in the description is chalyba-eo-ce-aruleis with ligatures .
Quote:
F. Super universe viridis subtus viridis micans summo gutture coeruleo micante. Rectricibus omnibus utrinque chalybaeo-coeruleis.
The F. that starts all the unnamed hummingbird diagnoses in this work (#45-48) is odd. In principle, diagnoses like this always start with the initial letter of the genus name (meaning the described organism a is a member of said genus, with this and that characters added in the diagnosis; see, in the same work, #4 F. for Falco, #9 L. for Lanius, #33 P. for Picus, #52 L. for Larus, #59 A. for Ardea, etc.). Thus, here, it should have been T. for Trochilus.

The rest would translate as: "wholly green above, glittering green below with the upper throat glittering blue. With all tail feathers on both sides steel-blue."

I really don't feel that this is a good match for Lophornis chalybeus. Possible better match: Chlorostilbon mellisugus (Blue-tailed Emerald)...? (All the birds in this list were sent from Cayenne.)

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Old Friday 30th December 2016, 09:23   #4
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Originally Posted by mb1848 View Post
Maybe because no one has read it in 200 years. See the discussion of vol. 4 of Bechstein here:
At least Charles Davies Sherborn here and Charles Wallace Richmond here have realized and/or read this mystery publication.

Assume it is a synonym for Chlorostilbon mellisugus (Linnaeus, 1758) wouldn't be chalybeus nevertheless be pre-occupied and therefore invalid for Lophornis chalybeus according the code?

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Old Friday 30th December 2016, 12:52   #5
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Originally Posted by Taphrospilus View Post
Assume it is a synonym for Chlorostilbon mellisugus (Linnaeus, 1758) wouldn't be chalybeus nevertheless be pre-occupied and therefore invalid for Lophornis chalybeus according the code?
If there is a Trochilus chalybeus available in Bechstein 1811, another Trochilus chalybeus made available at a later date should in principle not be in use, indeed. Except that it is, and the conditions for a reversal of precedence between these two names are certainly fulfilled.

Art. 57.2:
Quote:
57.2. Primary homonyms. Identical species-group names established for different nominal taxa when originally combined with the same generic name (see also Articles 11.9.3.2 and 57.8.1) are primary homonyms [Art. 53.3] and the junior name is permanently invalid (but see Article 23.9.5) except when:
--- 57.2.1. its use as a valid name (a nomen protectum) is maintained under the conditions specified in Article 23.9, or [...]
Art. 23.9:
Quote:
23.9. Reversal of precedence. In accordance with the purpose of the Principle of Priority [Art. 23.2], its application is moderated as follows:
--- 23.9.1. prevailing usage must be maintained when the following conditions are both met:
------ 23.9.1.1. the senior synonym or homonym has not been used as a valid name after 1899, and
------ 23.9.1.2. the junior synonym or homonym has been used for a particular taxon, as its presumed valid name, in at least 25 works, published by at least 10 authors in the immediately preceding 50 years and encompassing a span of not less than 10 years.
--- 23.9.2. An author who discovers that both the conditions of 23.9.1 are met should cite the two names together and state explicitly that the younger name is valid, and that the action is taken in accordance with this Article; at the same time the author must give evidence that the conditions of Article 23.9.1.2 are met, and also state that, to his or her knowledge, the condition in Article 23.9.1.1 applies. From the date of publication of that act the younger name has precedence over the older name. When cited, the younger but valid name may be qualified by the term nomen protectum and the invalid, but older, name by the term nomen oblitum (see Glossary). [...]

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Old Saturday 31st December 2016, 23:26   #6
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If there is a Trochilus chalybeus available in Bechstein 1811... If you trust Rademacher's Register from 1813 there is not there is a Trochilus chalybaeus. Page 764. The link is in the Swedish eponyn posts.
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Old Sunday 1st January 2017, 09:35   #7
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Quote:
Originally Posted by mb1848 View Post
If there is a Trochilus chalybeus available in Bechstein 1811... If you trust Rademacher's Register from 1813 there is not there is a Trochilus chalybaeus. Page 764. The link is in the Swedish eponyn posts.
[here], thus.
Albeit, of course, without seeing the original, it's hard to be sure that Rademacher did not 'correct' the name to this spelling, which he may have interpreted as 'more classical'.
From the point of view of the Code, these two spellings in a species-group name are deemed identical under Art. 58.1, thus whichever was actually used is not going to affect homonymy relationships.
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Old Tuesday 10th January 2017, 15:27   #8
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Quote:
Originally Posted by l_raty View Post
Albeit, of course, without seeing the original, it's hard to be sure that Rademacher did not 'correct' the name to this spelling, which he may have interpreted as 'more classical'.
.

I contacted the library in Dresden and according them Beschstein wrote:

Quote:
? 74. Stahlschwänziger Kolibri. T. chalibeus, mihi.
Grün, an der Gurgel himmelblau schillernd; Schwanzfedern auf beyden Seiten hell stahlblau. S. 738 Nr. 72 s. Nr. 78

Note: The mentioned Nr. 78 is on page 223 as "Blaukröpfiger Kolibri T. caeruleus". But I assume No 78 is no reference to his own work.

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Old Tuesday 10th January 2017, 18:41   #9
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The German description matches the hummingbird frm Cayenne from 1792 Actes.Soc.Hist.Nat. Paris as it has blue steel in the description. So it is the blue tailed emerald. And Rademacher did try and make the spelling more classical? The page number and plate numbers should be from Latham??
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Old Wednesday 11th January 2017, 10:14   #10
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The page number and plate numbers should be from Latham??
I assume the answer is no. See here. The hummingbirds started on p. 743 til 788 and there are no No 72 and 78 in Lathams book.

That might require digging more in all volumes of Bechstein to find out from which books he enhanced Lathams work.

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Old Friday 13th January 2017, 08:56   #11
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Here is Volume 4 but pages 1-368 are missing. From Vol 1 I learned that he enhanced his translations with the Supllement of A general synopsis of birds available at that time (think 2.nd with hummingbirds was not availble at that time) and the 13. Edition of Caroli a Linné. Systema naturae per regna tria naturae. See here.
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Old Friday 13th January 2017, 09:30   #12
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Taphrospilus View Post
Here is Volume 4 but pages 1-368 are missing.
It's not the right volume. (I already ran into this type of problem while searching for this work, see [here].)

This is called Vierter Band on an apparently added title page, dated 1798; but then follows an original title page, which says it is the Zweyten Bandes zweyter Theil (second part of the second volume), published in 1795. (1798 is the year of publication of the second part of the third volume -- at this point, the work was probably regarded as completed, and they may have produced additional title pages for the whole series.)

The parts that are nowhere on the Web are the Vierter Bandes erster Theil and Vierter Bandes zweyter Theil nebst Register, published respectively in 1811 and 1812 (these would have to be "7" and "8" in this numbering system, but I'm not sure they were ever called by these numbers in practice).

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Old Monday 19th June 2017, 08:43   #13
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Next question if we accept Lophornis chalybeus verreauxii or see it as a different species Lophornis verreauxii (as HBW) is a different topic. But shouldn't be the authors Bourcier & Verreaux, E, 1853 if we look at OD? Ok, the name may unquestionable be given by Bourcier. But the publication is from both authors.
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Old Monday 19th June 2017, 08:59   #14
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Taphrospilus View Post
Next question if we accept Lophornis chalybeus verreauxii or see it as a different species Lophornis verreauxii (as HBW) is a different topic. But shouldn't be the authors Bourcier & Verreaux, E, 1853 if we look at OD? Ok, the name may unquestionable be given by Bourcier. But the publication is from both authors.
The note is by "Jules et Ed. Verreaux", there is no internal evidence that Bourcier fulfilled any of the conditions of availability, nor did anything else than suggesting the name which was accepted by the authors.
The authors of the name are Verreaux & Verreaux.

EDIT -- No, I was too fast, sorry. There is an erratum on [p.288] of this volume, that makes it clear that the description was written by Bourcier alone, and that the names "Jules et Ed. Verreaux" were added by mistake. I would accept this, then.

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Old Wednesday 13th September 2017, 13:49   #15
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Bechstein's text is now available [at BHL].
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Old Thursday 14th September 2017, 06:39   #16
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Thank you Laurent. There is a T. chalybeus in the 1811 book not chalibeus or chalybaeus. I forget what this means.
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/i...e/320/mode/1up .
In the 1812 book is Egyptian Goose?? Anser varia Mihi. Usualy listed a name by Meyer and Wolf?
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/i...e/290/mode/1up .
An errata page.
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/i...e/319/mode/1up .
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Old Thursday 14th September 2017, 07:27   #17
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Taphrospilus View Post
Note: The mentioned Nr. 78 is on page 223 as "Blaukröpfiger Kolibri T. caeruleus". But I assume No 78 is no reference to his own work.
It's a ref to his own work. The [OD] of chalybeus is on p.222:
Quote:
? 74. Stahlschwänziger Kolibri. T. chalybeus, mihi.
Grün, an der Gurgel himmelblau schillernd; Schwanzfedern auf beyden Seiten hell stahlblau. S. 738 Nr. 72 s. Nr. 78.
- "S. 738 Nr. 72" is #72 on p.738 of the volume 1(2) (or "4") [here], where the bird was already described, but left unnamed.
- "s. Nr. 78.", where 's.' presumably stands for 'siehe', 'see', points to #78 of the present volume, which is indeed the 'Blaukröpfiger Kolibri' T. caeruleus on p.223-224 [here], where he ended the account with:
Quote:
Sicher ist es wohl der stahlschwänziger Kolibri (Nr. 74).

PS -- Mark, chalybeius is steely (made of steel / steel-like). chalybeus / chalybaeus / chalibaeus / calibaeus, etc. are variants of this.

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Old Thursday 14th September 2017, 08:48   #18
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In the 1812 book is Egyptian Goose?? Anser varia Mihi. Usualy listed a name by Meyer and Wolf?
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/i...e/290/mode/1up
It's Anas varia here, actually (given as "A. varia", but if you go backwards in the text checking the first name he uses for each species, they are all "A. something", up to Anas cygnus which has the genus name written in full; Anas is feminine, hence varia, Anser is masculine).

Anser varius, "Mihi" in Meyer & Wolf 1810: [here]
It's clearly the same bird, and Bechtsein 1812 actually gives a reference to "Meyers Taschenbuch II. 563." at the end of his account. But Meyer & Wolf 1810 in turn refer to:
Quote:
Anas varia. Bechstein's Ornitholog. Taschenbuch. Th. 2. S. 454. n. 39. dessen Natugesch. Deutschl. 2te Aufl. B. 4. S. 1043. n. 18.
that is:
- Ornithologische Taschenbuch, part 2, p.454, #39 [here] (1803 = original description);
- Gemeinnützige Naturgeschichte Deutschlands, 2nd edition, vol. 4, p.1043, #18 [here] (1809).
The name was based on Naumann's Naturgeschichte der Land- und Wasser-Vögel des nördlichen Deutschlands und angränzender Länder, vol. III, p.329, pl.73, fig.78: [text]; [plate] (1799). Clearly an Egyptian Goose.

(Authorities cited in Meyer & Wolf 1810 appear to be those of combinations, not those of specific names, as is now usual. For example, [on p.555], Anser albifrons is attributed to Bechstein, while Anas albifrons in its synonymy is quoted from "Gmel.Linn. syst." The same goes, presumably, for the "Mihi" flag added here to Anser varius; this signals a new placement in Anser; not a new epithet varius.)

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Old Friday 15th September 2017, 19:57   #19
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I had never seen Naumann's Naturgeschichte der Land- und Wasser-Vögel des nördlichen Deutschlands und angränzender Länder,. Seebohm in a 1880 Ibis calls it a rare volume. But also says that there are no Latin names except for in Acrocephalus and a few references to Linn.
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/i...e/299/mode/1up .
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