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American Kestrel - BirdForum Opus

Adult male
Photo © by kegressy
Ontario, Canada, 25 March 2005
Falco sparverius

Identification

9-12" (23-30 cm). W. 21" (53 cm)
A jay-sized falcon, often seen hovering. Recognizable in all plumages by rusty tail and back.
Adult male has slate-blue wings but black-spotted rusty mantle and scapulars, which dominate the view from the back when perched.
Female has rusty wings and back, narrow bands on tail.
Both sexes have 2 black stripes on face.

Variation

In the Caribbean, both very dark and very pale forms occur.

Distribution

Female, subspecies peruvianus
Photo © by Stanley Jones
Hotel El Angolo Chosica, Chosica, Lima, Peru, 15 August 2017

North America: widespread and very common, found from Alaska and Canada east to Nova Scotia and south to Mexico.
Central America and South America: found in most appropriate habitats south to Patagonia.
Caribbean: found almost everywhere except where it is or recently has been persecuted.

Northern populations are migratory, moving as far south as Panama.

Taxonomy

Subspecies

Juvenile
Photo © by Higheagle
Northern California, 11 June 2009

About 17 races are recognised[1]:

Habitat

Open forest and woodland, semi-desert, plains, grassland and cultivated land with scattered trees. In some areas a common urban bird.

Behaviour

Actions

Photo © by matphotocards
New Jersey, USA, 2 February 2008

Frequently hovers in mid-air while hunting.

Diet

Their main diet consists of insects and small invertebrates. The nominate subspecies mostly hunts for small rodents.

Breeding

This is a cavity nesting species. Clutch of 4-5 cream colored eggs with blotches and mottling.

Vocalisation

Shrill killy-killy-killy

Movements

Resident or sedentary over most of range. Race sparverius, from Alaska, Canada and northern USA migratory.

References

  1. Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, S. M. Billerman, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2019. The eBird/Clements Checklist of Birds of the World: v2019. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/
  2. White, C.M., Kirwan, G.M., Christie, D.A. & Boesman, P. (2020). American Kestrel (Falco sparverius). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from https://www.hbw.com/node/53219 on 27 February 2020).
  3. BirdForum Member observations
  4. Smallwood, J. A. and D. M. Bird (2002). American Kestrel (Falco sparverius), version 2.0. In The Birds of North America (A. F. Poole and F. B. Gill, Editors). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA. https://doi.org/10.2173/bna.602
  5. Global Raptor Information Network. 2020. Species account: American Kestrel Falco sparverius. Downloaded from http://www.globalraptors.org on 27 Feb. 2020
  6. Ely, T.E., et al. (2018). Morphological changes in American Kes­trels at continental migration sites. Global Ecology and Conservation 15: e00400.

Recommended Citation

External Links

GSearch checked for 2020 platform.

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