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Asian Glossy Starling

From Opus

(Redirected from Aplonis panayensis)

Alternative names: Philippine Glossy Starling; Indonesian Tree Starling; Bornean Starling

Photo by rizal2003Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, October 2004
Photo by rizal2003
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, October 2004
Aplonis panayensis


[edit] Identification

20cm (7¾ in). A medium-sized starling with bristly forehead feathers and lanceolate throat feathers.

  • Black plumage with greenish to oily gloss (lowermost underparts are matt black)
  • Small black mask on lores and around eye
  • Red eye
  • Black bill and legs

Sexes similar.
Juveniles have bold dark streaks over a greyish-brown dull white body.

[edit] Variations

The subspecies differ in bill size and colour of gloss.

[edit] Distribution

Found from northeast India to Bangladesh along the coast of Burma to south Thailand, Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo, Java, Bali, parts of Sulawesi, the Philippines.

Common and widespread.


A. panayensis; year-round
Maps/Texts consulted2

JuvenilesPhoto by Joe PanKinabatangan District, Sabah, Malaysia, May 2007
Photo by Joe Pan
Kinabatangan District, Sabah, Malaysia, May 2007

[edit] Taxonomy

[edit] Subspecies

Photo by jweeyhSingapore, May 2017
Photo by jweeyh
Singapore, May 2017

There are 14 subspecies[1]:

  • A. p. affinis:
  • A. p. strigata:
  • A. p. tytleri:
  • A. p. albiris:
  • Great and Central Nicobar Islands
  • A. p. heterochlora:
  • Anambas and Natuna islands (off Borneo)
  • A. p. eustathis:
  • Eastern Borneo
  • A. p. alipodis:
  • Panjang, Maratau and Derawan islands (off eastern Borneo)
  • A. p. panayensis:
  • A. p. sanghirensis:
  • Talaud, Sangihe, Siau, Tahjlandang, Ruang, and Biaro islands
  • A. p. enganensis:
  • Enggano Island (off southern Sumatra)
  • A. p. altirostris:
  • Simuelue, Banyan and Nias islands (off western Sumatra)
  • A. p. leptorrhyncha:
  • Batu Island (off western Sumatra)
  • A. p. pachistorhina:
  • Mentawi Islands (off western Sumatra)
  • A. p. gusti:

leptorrhyncha is not accepted by all authorities[2]

[edit] Habitat

Moist lowland forests, mangrove forests, open country, farms, plantations and gardens. Occurs generally below 700m.

[edit] Behaviour

[edit] Diet

The diet includes mainly soft fruits (papaya, banana, mango, figs) but may also take nectar, insects, spiders and snails.
Highly gregarious, feeds mainly in flocks.

[edit] Breeding

They nest in tree holes, palm tree crowns and thickets of epiphytic ferns. When a hole is used, little nesting material is used; otherwise, the nest is built using grass and items of rubbish, such as paper. Three eggs (blue, spotted dark brown) are laid at any time of the year, peaking March-June.

[edit] Movements

Mostly a resident species with some local movements.

[edit] References

  1. Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2016. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: v2016, with updates to August 2016. Downloaded from
  2. Del Hoyo, J, A Elliott, and D Christie, eds. 2009. Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 14: Bush-shrikes to Old World Sparrows. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. ISBN 978-8496553507
  3. Avibase
  4. BF Member observations

[edit] External Links


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