Alternative name: (Australian) White-eyed Duck
- Aythya australis
42–59 cm (16½-23¼ in)
- Chestnut-brown upperparts
- Rufous flanks
- Whitish belly
- White underwing
Eyes: white in male, brown in female
Large, deep lakes and marshes.
They are mainly vegetarian, eating seeds, flowers grass, sedges and aquatic plants. They also eat some aquatic invertebrates.
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- Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2016. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: v2016, with updates to August 2016. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/
- Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive (retrieved February 2017)
- BirdForum Opus contributors. (2021) Hardhead. In: BirdForum, the forum for wild birds and birding. Retrieved 23 January 2021 from https://www.birdforum.net/wiki/Hardhead