[ edit] Identification
L. 12â€“13Â·5 cm (4Â¾-5Â¼ in) Ws. 18.4cm (7.25in)
Overall drab color
Grays in the West; browns in the East
Unmarked, lighter underside
Long barred tail
[ edit] Similar Species
[ edit] Distribution
Throughout the SW quadrant and Pacific Coastal regions of the
U.S., extending deeply into central Mexico. Much less common east of the Mississippi, with dramatically declining populations extending to the Appalachian mountains.
[ edit] Taxonomy
A study shows genetic divisions within this species possibly indicating a future split.
[ edit] Subspecies
In the order of 15 geographically separate subspecies have been documented
; two went extinct in the early 1900s from predation and habitat destruction.
T. b.i eremophilus: East California to Utah, Wyoming, west Texas and west-central Mexico
T. b.i cryptus: Eastern Colorado south through western Oklahoma and western Texas to northeastern Mexico (northern Nuevo LeÃ³n)
T. b.i pulichi: Central United States, in Kansas, Oklahoma, and presumably north central Texas, and east, perhaps, to Missouri; mostly resident, but some winter in south central Texas and perhaps northeastern Mexico
T. b.i sadai: Southernmost Texas and northeastern Mexico (south to central Tamaulipas)
T. b.i mexicanus: Central Mexico (Jalisco to western Veracruz, south to south central Oaxaca)
T. b. calophonus: South-western British Columbia to western Washington and western Oregon
T. b.i drymoecus: South-western Oregon to California (Sacramento and n San Joaquin valleys)
T. b. marinensis: Coastal California (Del Norte County to Marin County)
T. b. spilurus: Coastal central California (San Francisco to Monterey Bay)
T. b. leucophrys: Formerly San Clemente I. (off southern California). Extinct; last reported in 1941
T. b. charienturus: Southwestern California (north to Morro Bay), including the northern Channel Islands, and northwestern Baja California, Mexico
T. b. cerroensis: West-central Baja California (30Â° to 26Â°N) and Isla Cedros
T. b. magdalenensis: Southern Baja California south of 26ÂºN
T. b. brevicauda: (Extinct ca 1903): Formerly Guadalupe Island (off Baja California)
[ edit] Habitat
Open country; mixed scrub, grass, and wooded areas.
[ edit] Behaviour
A relatively tame and conspicuous bird, it allows close approach, and is comfortable in man-made environments, often nesting in cavities provided by structures.
Their diet consists almost entirely of insects.
[ edit] Breeding
[ edit] Vocalisation
Listen in an external program
Two birds in conversation
San Angelo State Park, North Unit,
, July 2016
[ edit] References
Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2017. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: v2017, with updates to August 2017. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/
Paper describing genetic findings with this species
Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive (retrieved August 2016)
[ edit] External Links