Includes: Canary Islands Goldcrest
[ edit] Identification
Length 9 cm (3Â½ in), weight 5-7 g
Wings have two white wing bars and a dark mark
Dull whitish-buff underparts
Head: black border to orange ( male) or yellow-orange crown ( female), or plain olive-green ( juvenile)
Thin black bill
Narrow black moustachial line
[ edit] Variations
The subspecies differ in colour tone (
R. r. coatsi the palest, R. r. yunnanensis the darkest), and the width and intensity of the black crown border. In most, the black border does not extend across the forehead, but it does in R. r. teneriffae (as also in Firecrest). In R. r. tristis, the body plumage is greyer, and the crown border is grey-brown, not black (see right).
[ edit] Similar Species
Firecrest has a white supercilium and black eyestripe.
The tiny size and lack of supercillium distinguishes it from all other small green warblers.
[ edit] Distribution
Europe and temperate Asia; scarce winter visitor to northwest Africa. Sedentary or short-distance migrant; vacates colder northern areas in winter. Occurs from sea level, to a maximum of 4,000 m altitude in the Himalaya.
[ edit] Taxonomy
[ edit] Subspecies
There are 12 to 14 subspecies
  :
R. r. regulus (includes R. r. anglorum, R. r. interni): Europe to Asia Minor and western Siberia; winters to Mediterranean
R. r. azoricus : Azores (SÃ£o Miguel Island)
R. r. sanctaemariae: Azores (Santa Maria Island)
R. r. inermis: western Azores (Flores, Faial, Pico, SÃ£o Jorge and Terciera)
R. r. teneriffae: Canary Islands (sometimes split as full species Canary Islands Goldcrest)
R. r. ellenthalerae: western Canary Islands (included in R. r. teneriffae by some authors )
 R. r. buturlini: Crimea, Caucasus and Azerbaijan; winters to northern Iran
R. r. hyrcanus: eastern Turkey ( Alborz mountains) to northern Iran (southern Caspian District)
R. r. coatsi: western Siberia to Altai Mountains; winters to southern Nan Shan Mountains
R. r. tristis: mountains of central Asia; winters to Transcaspia and western Iran
R. r. himalayensis: Himalaya of Afghanistan to Pakistan and Nepal
R. r. sikkimensis: Himalaya of Nepal to south-eastern Tibet and western China
R. r. japonensis: mountains of Manchuria to northern and eastern China, Korea and Japan
R. r. yunnanensis: mountains of western China (southern Gansu and Shaanxi to Sichuan and Yunnan)
[ edit] Habitat
Forests, woods and large gardens with scattered trees. Prefers conifers for breeding. Can be found in gorse and other scrub on heaths outside of the breeding season.
[ edit] Behaviour
Hovering in front of flowers
Photo © by the late
, January 2014
Often joins mixed tit flocks in the winter. In very tall conifers (40-60 m tall), will form vertically stacked breeding territories with separate pairs in upper and lower canopy.
[ edit] Flight
Undulating flight. Often hovers when feeding in the tree canopy.
The diet consists mainly of small insects and spiders.
[ edit] Breeding
The nest is suspended under a conifer branch.
[ edit] Vocalisation
Listen in an external program
Listen in an external program
, March 2010
[ edit] References
Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2018. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: v2018. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/
Gill, F and D Donsker (Eds). 2014. IOC World Bird Names (version 4.3). Available at http://www.worldbirdnames.org/.
Del Hoyo, J, A Elliot, and D Christie, eds. 2006. Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 11: Old World Flycatchers to Old World Warblers. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. ISBN 978-8496553064
Collins Pocket Guide to British Birds 1966
Collins Field Guide 5th Edition
Collins Bird Guide ISBN 0 00 219728 6
[ edit] External Links