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From Opus

Family: Trochilidae


[edit] Description

Hummingbirds as currently understood is a family entirely limited to the Americas. Two fossils from Germany hint that may not always have been the case, as these fossils show very hummingbird-like birds from more than 30 million years ago in Germany, Europe1.

Hummingbirds all have five pairs of tail feathers (rectrices). The tail tends to be disproportionately larger in large species, and the variation in shape is largest in small species; therefore, strongly forked tails are almost only seen in small species, but other small species show a graduated tail..

Hummingbirds generally have sexual roles where the males provide no incubation or care for nestlings. In agreement with this division, most species are sexually dimorphic with the males much more ornamental than the females.

[edit] Taxonomy

Trochilidae is a Family in the Order Caprimulgiformes.

Family Trochilidae viewedit

Genus Topaza viewedit
T. pella Crimson Topaz
T. pyra Fiery Topaz

Genus Florisuga viewedit
F. mellivora White-necked Jacobin
F. fuscus Black Jacobin

Genus Eutoxeres viewedit
E. aquila White-tipped Sicklebill
E. condamini Buff-tailed Sicklebill

Genus Ramphodon viewedit
R. naevius Saw-billed Hermit

Genus Glaucis viewedit
G. dohrnii Hook-billed Hermit
G. aeneus Bronzy Hermit
G. hirsutus Rufous-breasted Hermit

Genus Threnetes viewedit
T. ruckeri Band-tailed Barbthroat
T. leucurus Pale-tailed Barbthroat
T. niger Sooty Barbthroat

Genus Anopetia viewedit
A. gounellei Broad-tipped Hermit

Genus Phaethornis viewedit
P. hispidus White-bearded Hermit
P. yaruqui White-whiskered Hermit
P. guy Green Hermit
P. syrmatophorus Tawny-bellied Hermit
P. koepckeae Koepcke's Hermit
P. philippii Needle-billed Hermit
P. bourcieri Straight-billed Hermit
P. longirostris Long-billed Hermit
P. mexicanus Mexican Hermit
P. superciliosus Long-tailed Hermit
P. malaris Great-billed Hermit
P. anthophilus Pale-bellied Hermit
P. squalidus Dusky-throated Hermit
P. rupurumii Streak-throated Hermit
P. longuemareus Little Hermit
P. aethopygus Tapajos Hermit
P. idaliae Minute Hermit
P. nattereri Cinnamon-throated Hermit
P. atrimentalis Black-throated Hermit
P. striigularis Stripe-throated Hermit
P. griseogularis Gray-chinned Hermit
P. ruber Reddish Hermit
P. stuarti White-browed Hermit
P. subochraceus Buff-bellied Hermit
P. augusti Sooty-capped Hermit
P. pretrei Planalto Hermit
P. eurynome Scale-throated Hermit

Genus Doryfera viewedit
D. ludovicae Green-fronted Lancebill
D. johannae Blue-fronted Lancebill

Genus Schistes viewedit
S. albogularis White-throated Wedgebill
S. geoffroyi Geoffroy's Wedgebill

Genus Augastes viewedit
A. scutatus Hyacinth Visorbearer
A. lumachella Hooded Visorbearer

Genus Colibri viewedit
C. delphinae Brown Violetear
C. thalassinus Mexican Violetear
C. cyanotus Lesser Violetear
C. coruscans Sparkling Violetear
C. serrirostris White-vented Violetear

Genus Androdon viewedit
A. aequatorialis Tooth-billed Hummingbird

Genus Heliactin viewedit
H. bilophus Horned Sungem

Genus Heliothryx viewedit
H. barroti Purple-crowned Fairy
H. auritus Black-eared Fairy

Genus Polytmus viewedit
P. guainumbi White-tailed Goldenthroat
P. milleri Tepui Goldenthroat
P. theresiae Green-tailed Goldenthroat

Genus Avocettula viewedit
A. recurvirostris Fiery-tailed Awlbill

Genus Chrysolampis viewedit
C. mosquitus Ruby-topaz Hummingbird

Genus Anthracothorax viewedit
A. viridigula Green-throated Mango
A. prevostii Green-breasted Mango
A. nigricollis Black-throated Mango
A. veraguensis Veraguan Mango
A. dominicus Antillean Mango
A. viridis Green Mango
A. mango Jamaican Mango

Genus Eulampis viewedit
E. jugularis Purple-throated Carib
E. holosericeus Green-throated Carib

Genus Heliangelus viewedit
H. mavors Orange-throated Sunangel
H. amethysticollis Amethyst-throated Sunangel
H. strophianus Gorgeted Sunangel
H. exortis Tourmaline Sunangel
H. micraster Little Sunangel
H. viola Purple-throated Sunangel
H. zusii Bogota Sunangel
H. regalis Royal Sunangel

Genus Sephanoides viewedit
S. sephaniodes Green-backed Firecrown
S. fernandensis Juan Fernandez Firecrown

Genus Discosura viewedit
D. popelairii Wire-crested Thorntail
D. langsdorffi Black-bellied Thorntail
D. letitiae Coppery Thorntail
D. conversii Green Thorntail
D. longicaudus Racket-tailed Coquette

Genus Lophornis viewedit
L. ornatus Tufted Coquette
L. gouldii Dot-eared Coquette
L. magnificus Frilled Coquette
L. brachylophus Short-crested Coquette
L. delattrei Rufous-crested Coquette
L. stictolophus Spangled Coquette
L. chalybeus Festive Coquette
L. pavoninus Peacock Coquette
L. helenae Black-crested Coquette
L. adorabilis White-crested Coquette

Genus Phlogophilus viewedit
P. hemileucurus Ecuadorian Piedtail
P. harterti Peruvian Piedtail

Genus Adelomyia viewedit
A. melanogenys Speckled Hummingbird

Genus Anthocephala viewedit
A. floriceps Santa Marta Blossomcrown
A. berlepschi Tolima Blossomcrown

Genus Aglaiocercus viewedit
A. kingii Long-tailed Sylph
A. coelestis Violet-tailed Sylph
A. berlepschi Venezuelan Sylph

Genus Sappho viewedit
S. sparganurus Red-tailed Comet

Genus Polyonymus viewedit
P. caroli Bronze-tailed Comet

Genus Taphrolesbia viewedit
T. griseiventris Gray-bellied Comet

Genus Oreotrochilus viewedit
O. chimborazo Ecuadorian Hillstar
O. estella Andean Hillstar
O. leucopleurus White-sided Hillstar
O. melanogaster Black-breasted Hillstar
O. adela Wedge-tailed Hillstar

Genus Opisthoprora viewedit
O. euryptera Mountain Avocetbill

Genus Lesbia viewedit
L. victoriae Black-tailed Trainbearer
L. nuna Green-tailed Trainbearer

Genus Ramphomicron viewedit
R. dorsale Black-backed Thornbill
R. microrhynchum Purple-backed Thornbill

Genus Chalcostigma viewedit
C. ruficeps Rufous-capped Thornbill
C. olivaceum Olivaceous Thornbill
C. stanleyi Blue-mantled Thornbill
C. heteropogon Bronze-tailed Thornbill
C. herrani Rainbow-bearded Thornbill

Genus Oxypogon viewedit
O. stubelii Buffy Helmetcrest
O. cyanolaemus Blue-bearded Helmetcrest
O. lindenii White-bearded Helmetcrest
O. guerinii Green-bearded Helmetcrest

Genus Oreonympha viewedit
O. nobilis Bearded Mountaineer

Genus Metallura viewedit
M. iracunda Perija Metaltail
M. tyrianthina Tyrian Metaltail
M. williami Viridian Metaltail
M. baroni Violet-throated Metaltail
M. odomae Neblina Metaltail
M. theresiae Coppery Metaltail
M. eupogon Fire-throated Metaltail
M. aeneocauda Scaled Metaltail
M. phoebe Black Metaltail

Genus Haplophaedia viewedit
H. aureliae Greenish Puffleg
H. assimilis Buff-thighed Puffleg
H. lugens Hoary Puffleg

Genus Eriocnemis viewedit
E. nigrivestis Black-breasted Puffleg
E. isabellae Gorgeted Puffleg
E. vestita Glowing Puffleg
E. derbyi Black-thighed Puffleg
E. godini Turquoise-throated Puffleg
E. cupreoventris Coppery-bellied Puffleg
E. luciani Sapphire-vented Puffleg
E. mosquera Golden-breasted Puffleg
E. glaucopoides Blue-capped Puffleg
E. mirabilis Colorful Puffleg
E. alinae Emerald-bellied Puffleg

Genus Loddigesia viewedit
L. mirabilis Marvelous Spatuletail

Genus Aglaeactis viewedit
A. cupripennis Shining Sunbeam
A. castelnaudii White-tufted Sunbeam
A. aliciae Purple-backed Sunbeam
A. pamela Black-hooded Sunbeam

Genus Coeligena viewedit
C. coeligena Bronzy Inca
C. wilsoni Brown Inca
C. prunellei Black Inca
C. torquata Collared Inca
C. violifer Violet-throated Starfrontlet
C. iris Rainbow Starfrontlet
C. phalerata White-tailed Starfrontlet
C. orina Dusky Starfrontlet
C. lutetiae Buff-winged Starfrontlet
C. bonapartei Golden-bellied Starfrontlet
C. helianthea Blue-throated Starfrontlet

Genus Lafresnaya viewedit
L. lafresnayi Mountain Velvetbreast

Genus Ensifera viewedit
E. ensifera Sword-billed Hummingbird

Genus Pterophanes viewedit
P. cyanopterus Great Sapphirewing

Genus Boissonneaua viewedit
B. flavescens Buff-tailed Coronet
B. matthewsii Chestnut-breasted Coronet
B. jardini Velvet-purple Coronet

Genus Ocreatus viewedit
O. underwoodii Booted Racket-tail

Genus Urochroa viewedit
U. bougueri White-tailed Hillstar

Genus Urosticte viewedit
U. benjamini Purple-bibbed Whitetip
U. ruficrissa Rufous-vented Whitetip

Genus Heliodoxa viewedit
H. xanthogonys Velvet-browed Brilliant
H. gularis Pink-throated Brilliant
H. branickii Rufous-webbed Brilliant
H. schreibersii Black-throated Brilliant
H. aurescens Gould's Jewelfront
H. rubinoides Fawn-breasted Brilliant
H. jacula Green-crowned Brilliant
H. imperatrix Empress Brilliant
H. leadbeateri Violet-fronted Brilliant

Genus Clytolaema viewedit
C. rubricauda Brazilian Ruby

Genus Patagona viewedit
P. gigas Giant Hummingbird

Genus Sternoclyta viewedit
S. cyanopectus Violet-chested Hummingbird

Genus Hylonympha viewedit
H. macrocerca Scissor-tailed Hummingbird

Genus Eugenes viewedit
E. fulgens Rivoli's Hummingbird
E. spectabilis Talamanca Hummingbird

Genus Heliomaster viewedit
H. longirostris Long-billed Starthroat
H. constantii Plain-capped Starthroat
H. squamosus Stripe-breasted Starthroat
H. furcifer Blue-tufted Starthroat

Genus Panterpe viewedit
P. insignis Fiery-throated Hummingbird

Genus Lampornis viewedit
L. viridipallens Green-throated Mountain-gem
L. sybillae Green-breasted Mountain-gem
L. amethystinus Amethyst-throated Hummingbird
L. clemenciae Blue-throated Hummingbird
L. hemileucus White-bellied Mountain-gem
L. calolaemus Purple-throated Mountain-gem
L. castaneoventris White-throated Mountain-gem

Genus Lamprolaima viewedit
L. rhami Garnet-throated Hummingbird

Genus Myrtis viewedit
M. fanny Purple-collared Woodstar

Genus Eulidia viewedit
E. yarrellii Chilean Woodstar

Genus Rhodopis viewedit
R. vesper Oasis Hummingbird

Genus Thaumastura viewedit
T. cora Peruvian Sheartail

Genus Chaetocercus viewedit
C. mulsanti White-bellied Woodstar
C. bombus Little Woodstar
C. heliodor Gorgeted Woodstar
C. astreans Santa Marta Woodstar
C. berlepschi Esmeraldas Woodstar
C. jourdanii Rufous-shafted Woodstar

Genus Myrmia viewedit
M. micrura Short-tailed Woodstar

Genus Microstilbon viewedit
M. burmeisteri Slender-tailed Woodstar

Genus Doricha viewedit
D. enicura Slender Sheartail
D. eliza Mexican Sheartail

Genus Tilmatura viewedit
T. dupontii Sparkling-tailed Woodstar

Genus Calothorax viewedit
C. lucifer Lucifer Hummingbird
C. pulcher Beautiful Hummingbird

Genus Calliphlox viewedit
C. evelynae Bahama Woodstar
C. lyrura Inagua Woodstar
C. bryantae Magenta-throated Woodstar
C. mitchellii Purple-throated Woodstar
C. amethystina Amethyst Woodstar

Genus Archilochus viewedit
A. colubris Ruby-throated Hummingbird
A. alexandri Black-chinned Hummingbird

Genus Mellisuga viewedit
M. minima Vervain Hummingbird
M. helenae Bee Hummingbird

Genus Calypte viewedit
C. anna Anna's Hummingbird
C. costae Costa's Hummingbird

Genus Atthis viewedit
A. heloisa Bumblebee Hummingbird
A. ellioti Wine-throated Hummingbird

Genus Selasphorus viewedit
S. platycercus Broad-tailed Hummingbird
S. rufus Rufous Hummingbird
S. sasin Allen's Hummingbird
S. flammula Volcano Hummingbird
S. ardens Glow-throated Hummingbird
S. scintilla Scintillant Hummingbird
S. calliope Calliope Hummingbird

Genus Chlorostilbon viewedit
C. melanorhynchus Western Emerald
C. gibsoni Red-billed Emerald
C. mellisugus Blue-tailed Emerald
C. auriceps Golden-crowned Emerald
C. forficatus Cozumel Emerald
C. canivetii Canivet's Emerald
C. assimilis Garden Emerald
C. olivaresi Chiribiquete Emerald
C. ricordii Cuban Emerald
C. bracei
Brace's Emerald
C. swainsonii Hispaniolan Emerald
C. maugaeus Puerto Rican Emerald
C. aureoventris Glittering-bellied Emerald
C. russatus Coppery Emerald
C. stenurus Narrow-tailed Emerald
C. alice Green-tailed Emerald
C. poortmani Short-tailed Emerald

Genus Chlorestes viewedit
C. notata Blue-chinned Sapphire

Genus Cynanthus viewedit
C. sordidus Dusky Hummingbird
C. latirostris Broad-billed Hummingbird

Genus Cyanophaia viewedit
C. bicolor Blue-headed Hummingbird

Genus Orthorhyncus viewedit
O. cristatus Antillean Crested Hummingbird

Genus Klais viewedit
K. guimeti Violet-headed Hummingbird

Genus Abeillia viewedit
A. abeillei Emerald-chinned Hummingbird

Genus Stephanoxis viewedit
S. lalandi Green-crowned Plovercrest
S. loddigesii Purple-crowned Plovercrest

Genus Phaeochroa viewedit
P. cuvierii Scaly-breasted Hummingbird

Genus Campylopterus viewedit
C. curvipennis Wedge-tailed Sabrewing
C. excellens Long-tailed Sabrewing
C. largipennis Gray-breasted Sabrewing
C. rufus Rufous Sabrewing
C. hemileucurus Violet Sabrewing
C. hyperythrus Rufous-breasted Sabrewing
C. ensipennis White-tailed Sabrewing
C. falcatus Lazuline Sabrewing
C. phainopeplus Santa Marta Sabrewing
C. villaviscensio Napo Sabrewing
C. duidae Buff-breasted Sabrewing

Genus Eupetomena viewedit
E. macrourus Swallow-tailed Hummingbird

Genus Chalybura viewedit
C. buffonii White-vented Plumeleteer
C. urochrysia Bronze-tailed Plumeleteer

Genus Thalurania viewedit
T. ridgwayi Mexican Woodnymph
T. colombica Crowned Woodnymph
T. furcata Fork-tailed Woodnymph
T. watertonii Long-tailed Woodnymph
T. glaucopis Violet-capped Woodnymph

Genus Eupherusa viewedit
E. eximia Stripe-tailed Hummingbird
E. cyanophrys Blue-capped Hummingbird
E. poliocerca White-tailed Hummingbird
E. nigriventris Black-bellied Hummingbird

Genus Elvira viewedit
E. chionura White-tailed Emerald
E. cupreiceps Coppery-headed Emerald

Genus Microchera viewedit
M. albocoronata Snowcap

Genus Aphantochroa viewedit
A. cirrochloris Sombre Hummingbird

Genus Taphrospilus viewedit
T. hypostictus Many-spotted Hummingbird

Genus Leucochloris viewedit
L. albicollis White-throated Hummingbird

Genus Leucippus viewedit
L. fallax Buffy Hummingbird
L. baeri Tumbes Hummingbird
L. taczanowskii Spot-throated Hummingbird
L. chlorocercus Olive-spotted Hummingbird

Genus Amazilia viewedit
A. chionogaster White-bellied Hummingbird
A. viridicauda Green-and-white Hummingbird
A. castaneiventris Chestnut-bellied Hummingbird
A. amazilia Amazilia Hummingbird
A. candida White-bellied Emerald
A. luciae Honduran Emerald
A. brevirostris White-chested Emerald
A. leucogaster Plain-bellied Emerald
A. versicolor Versicolored Emerald
A. franciae Andean Emerald
A. fimbriata Glittering-throated Emerald
A. lactea Sapphire-spangled Emerald
A. amabilis Blue-chested Hummingbird
A. decora Charming Hummingbird
A. rosenbergi Purple-chested Hummingbird
A. boucardi Mangrove Hummingbird
A. cyanocephala Azure-crowned Hummingbird
A. beryllina Berylline Hummingbird
A. cyanura Blue-tailed Hummingbird
A. saucerottei Steely-vented Hummingbird
A. cyanifrons Indigo-capped Hummingbird
A. edward Snowy-bellied Hummingbird
A. viridigaster Green-bellied Hummingbird
A. tzacatl Rufous-tailed Hummingbird
A. yucatanensis Buff-bellied Hummingbird
A. rutila Cinnamon Hummingbird
A. violiceps Violet-crowned Hummingbird
A. viridifrons Green-fronted Hummingbird
A. tobaci Copper-rumped Hummingbird

Genus Chrysuronia viewedit
C. oenone Golden-tailed Sapphire

Genus Goethalsia viewedit
G. bella Pirre Hummingbird

Genus Goldmania viewedit
G. violiceps Violet-capped Hummingbird

Genus Trochilus viewedit
T. polytmus Red-billed Streamertail
T. scitulus Black-billed Streamertail

Genus Lepidopyga viewedit
L. coeruleogularis Sapphire-throated Hummingbird
L. lilliae Sapphire-bellied Hummingbird
L. goudoti Shining-green Hummingbird

Genus Juliamyia viewedit
J. julie Violet-bellied Hummingbird

Genus Hylocharis viewedit
H. humboldtii Humboldt's Sapphire
H. eliciae Blue-throated Goldentail
H. sapphirina Rufous-throated Sapphire
H. cyanus White-chinned Sapphire
H. chrysura Gilded Hummingbird
H. grayi Blue-headed Sapphire
H. leucotis White-eared Hummingbird
H. xantusii Xantus's Hummingbird

[edit] References

  1. A paper in Science-news describing the German hummingbird fossils
  2. Paper discussing hummingbird evolution and especially their tails.

[edit] External Links

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