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Common House Martin
Alternative names: House Martin; Northern House Martin
 Similar Species
Common Swifts appear all dark and very sickle or boomerang-shaped and are comparatively large compared to the three hirundines below.
Barn Swallows are mostly pale from below and all dark above, with a dark (and reddish) throat/head and long, dark tail streamers.
House martin are very white below and dark from above, with much shorter, dark tail, and a prominent white rump
Sand Martin are pale from below with a dark throat band, but noticeably brown-coloured.
There is a difference in the flying style too: House martin flight is more fluttery than a Barn Swallow which is faster, more direct and swooping, while Sand Martin are more fluttery still, and Common Swift are very fast and look somewhat stiff-winged.
Finally, the calls are all quite distinct: swift calls are quite loud and screeching, while swallows are more twittery and varied. House martin and Sand Martin calls are quite similar, less sustained than swallows possibly, and more chirpy and clipped, with sand martin being slightly scratchier or hoarse sounding
Widespread and sometimes common, recent evidence of decline.
There are 3 subspecies:
Aerial. Breeds in towns and rural areas.
Gregarious, breeding colonially on buildings, under eaves and sometimes in cliffs. Nest of mud.
Almost entirely flying insects.
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