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Dunnock

From Opus

Alternative name: Hedge Accentor, Hedge Sparrow

Nominate P. m. modularisPhoto © by Robin59Stolberg/NRW, Germany, 4 February 2012
Nominate P. m. modularis
Photo © by Robin59
Stolberg/NRW, Germany, 4 February 2012
Prunella modularis

Contents

[edit] Identification

L. 13-14.5 cm (5-5¾ in)

  • Black and brown streaks on back
  • Streaked brown cap
  • Grey throat
  • Brown eye
  • Fine dark bill

[edit] Identification Hints

One of the things to look for is the fine, insect-eating bill which immediately separates it from a sparrow. (In the past the species was often called 'hedge sparrow'.) The grey neckband is also a good field mark, which immediately rules out any warbler (which its song might mistakenly suggest). It also lacks the pale supercilium which many warblers exhibit.

Subspecies P. m. occidentalisPhoto © by Steve GWest Fife, Scotland, 21 December 2003
Subspecies P. m. occidentalis
Photo © by Steve G
West Fife, Scotland, 21 December 2003

[edit] Distribution

From the British Isles to central Europe and from the Balkans to the Caucasus birds are mainly resident or undergo only short-distance dispersal. Further east and north populations are more strongly migratory and the winter range extends from southern Spain to Turkey and the Middle East and on many Mediterranean islands. Scarce or rare winter visitor to parts of North Africa.

Vagrants recorded north to Svalbard, Bear Island, Iceland and the Faroes, and in the south as far as the Canary Islands, Mauritania, Algeria, Libya and Kuwait.

Seen in the UK all year. Found in North and Eastern Europe only in summer.

[edit] Taxonomy

Courtship displayPhoto © by Joe52Bournemouth, UK, 1 April 2012
Courtship display
Photo © by Joe52
Bournemouth, UK, 1 April 2012

[edit] Subspecies

There are 8 subspecies[1]:

  • P. m. hebridium: are darker than occidentalis with rufous-brown plumage on wings.
  • P. m. occidentalis: are darker than birds from mainland Europe, especially on head and neck but also below
  • P. m. modularis:
  • Northern and central Europe; winters to western Mediterranean islands and North Africa
  • P. m. mabbotti:
JuvenilePhoto © by Cristian MihaiBusteni (PH), Romania, 14 August 2016
Juvenile
Photo © by Cristian Mihai
Busteni (PH), Romania, 14 August 2016
  • P. m. meinertzhageni:
  • P. m. fuscata:
  • Mountains of Crimean Peninsula
  • P. m. euxina: has paler streaking and paler grey crown than nominate
  • Northern Turkey to western Caucasus Mountains
  • P. m. obscura: much paler and duller than other races with whitish mottling on breast

[edit] Habitat

Photo © by BrianWHDerby, Derbyshire, 8 October 2017
Photo © by BrianWH
Derby, Derbyshire, 8 October 2017

Found in woodland and scrub, city parks and gardens, in hedgerows and copses on farmland. In mountains and the north occurs in pine, larch and spruce forests, and in willow, birch and alder scrub.

Breeds in parks, gardens, open woodland, heaths and commons with gorse or scrub, areas with hedges and thick shrubbery, also young conifer stands; but in northern Europe mainly in dense spruce plantations, also in juniper country and upland forest.

[edit] Behaviour

Resident; migratory in north. Rather shy and retiring in summer.
It is a rather unobtrusive bird, sometimes hopping around flowerbeds or at the base of bushes but it is not particularly shy and you quite often see it on patios or roadsides.

[edit] Breeding

Nests in thick bush or low down in conifer. The nest is a small grassy cup, lined with hair, moss, feathers, and wool. There may be 2 or 3 broods. This species is known to have a polyandrous breeding system in which males outnumber females, and females mate with multiple males leading to sperm competition. [3]

[edit] Diet

Forages on the ground, often close to cover, picks up seeds and small insects.

[edit] Vocalisation

Loud penetrating Tseep. Song high pitched fast warble.


Listen in an external program

[edit] References

  1. Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2018. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: v2018. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/
  2. BF Member observations
  3. Davies, N. B. (1983). Polyandry, cloaca-pecking and sperm competition in dunnocks. Nature. 302 (5906): 334–336. doi:10.1038/302334a0.

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