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Black Francolin - BirdForum Opus

(Redirected from Francolinus francolinus)
Subspecies F. f. asiae : male
Photo © by Alok Tewari
Jim Corbett National Park, Uttarakhand Himalayas, India, June-2016
Francolinus francolinus


Nominate subspecies : female
Photo © by lior kislev
Btecha North Israel, November 2008

31–36 cm (12-14 in)

  • Mainly black
  • White spotting on back and flanks
  • Chestnut neck collar
  • White cheek patches
  • Brown wings
  • Red legs

The amount white spotting on the flanks varies considerably


  • Mainly brown
  • Chestnut hind neck
  • The depth of colour of the females varies


Kashmir, Cyprus, south-eastern Turkey, Iran, southwest Turkmenistan, northeast India, and south-western Nepal.

Introduced to Hawaii



Sub-adult male, subspecies asiae
Photo © by Tribhuz
Suklaphanta National Park, Nepal, December 2017
Subspecies F. f. asiae : female
Photo © by Alok Tewari
Dist. Gurgaon, Haryana, India, January-2018

There are 6 subspecies[1]:

  • F. f. francolinus:
  • F. f. arabistanicus:
  • F. f. bogdanovi:
  • F. f. henrici:
  • F. f. asiae:
  • F. f. melanonotus:


Scrubby habitats with plenty of low cover. Grassland and other cultivated areas. Also wetlands.



They nest in a bare ground scrape. The clutch consists of 8-18 pale greenish-brown eggs with white spots.


The diet consists of a variety of seeds from grass, weeds and cereal crops; also leaves, shoots, tubers berries and fruit. They also eat many insects and their larvae.


Subspecies F. f. henrici : male
Photo © by Jugal Tiwari
Kutch, Gujarat, India, September 2009

Listen in an external program

Recording by Alok Tewari
(Jim Corbett NP, India, May-2016

In Culture

State bird of Haryana (India).


  1. Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2018. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: v2018. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/
  2. Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive (retrieved Mar 2018)
  3. Wikipedia
  4. Birdforum Member observations
  5. Birdforum members description of their courtship

Recommended Citation

External Links