- Francolinus francolinus
31–36 cm (12-14 in)
- Mainly black
- White spotting on back and flanks
- Chestnut neck collar
- White cheek patches
- Brown wings
- Red legs
The amount white spotting on the flanks varies considerably
- Mainly brown
- Chestnut hind neck
- The depth of colour of the females varies
Introduced to Hawaii
There are 6 subspecies:
- F. f. francolinus:
- F. f. arabistanicus:
- F. f. bogdanovi:
- F. f. henrici:
- F. f. asiae:
- Northern India
- F. f. melanonotus:
Scrubby habitats with plenty of low cover. Grassland and other cultivated areas. Also wetlands.
They nest in a bare ground scrape. The clutch consists of 8-18 pale greenish-brown eggs with white spots.
The diet consists of a variety of seeds from grass, weeds and cereal crops; also leaves, shoots, tubers berries and fruit. They also eat many insects and their larvae.
State bird of Haryana (India).
- Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2018. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: v2018. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/
- Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive (retrieved Mar 2018)
- Birdforum Member observations
- Birdforum members description of their courtship
- BirdForum Opus contributors. (2021) Black Francolin. In: BirdForum, the forum for wild birds and birding. Retrieved 21 October 2021 from https://www.birdforum.net/opus/Black_Francolin