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From Opus

Photo by Gerd Rossen Northern Germany, February 2004
Photo by Gerd Rossen
Northern Germany, February 2004
Coccothraustes coccothraustes


[edit] Identification

FemalePhoto by MacswedeSolberga, Sweden, May 2013
Photo by Macswede
Solberga, Sweden, May 2013

16-18cm (6-7 in)

  • Chestnut-brown
  • Grey hind collar
  • Orangey-buff crown and cheeks
  • Black eye patch
  • Black throat
  • Large white wing patch
  • Black wing tips
  • Very heavy stout bill (bluish-grey in summer; yellow in winter)
  • Broad white tip on tail
  • Flesh-coloured legs

[edit] Distribution

JuvenilePhoto by Daniel C. BradleyMauerbach, Austria, July, 2013
Photo by Daniel C. Bradley
Mauerbach, Austria, July, 2013

Breeds in southern Scotland and England and from the Pyrenees and western France to Denmark, southern Sweden and the Baltic States east to Russia and the Urals. In the south breeds in southern Iberia and North-West Africa in Morocco, north-east Algeria and north Tunisia. Also Corsica, Sardinia, and Italy, the Balkans, Greece and northern Turkey. Also breeds in the Crimea and Caucasus.

Also found in Asia from Kazakhstan, through western Afghanistan, Japan to China.

Northern and eastern populations are migratory leaving breeding areas in September-October, returning late March-early May. Elsewhere in range mainly resident or short-distance dispersal only. Winter range more widespread in western and southern Europe especially around the Mediterranean and a scarce winter visitor to the Balearics, Malta and Sicily, Crete and Cyprus and also in the Near East including Lebanon and Israel.

Vagrants recorded in Iceland, the Channel Islands, Madeira, Canary Islands and Gibraltar.

Widely distributed but generally uncommon.

[edit] Taxonomy

[edit] Subspecies

MalePhoto by bru.bGueret, Creuse, France, February 2015
Photo by bru.b
Gueret, Creuse, France, February 2015

There are 5 subspecies[1]:

  • C. c. coccothraustes:
  • C. c. buvryi: smaller bill, greyer crown and rump and less white on wings and tail
  • C. c.nigricans: darker-backed
  • Ukraine to Crimean Peninsula, Caspian Sea and northern Iran
  • C. c. humii:
  • C. c. japonicus:
  • Sakhalin, Hokkaido and northern Honshu; winters to eastern China and Bonin Island

[edit] Habitat

Usually occurs in mature deciduous or mixed woodland, often beech and hornbeam, up to 3000m. Also found in some areas in parks, large gardens and orchards. In winter may be seen in more open habitats, along hedgerows and woodland edges.

[edit] Behaviour

Often flocks after breeding.

[edit] Diet

Their diet consists of a wide variety of hard seeds, buds and shoots. They will also eat some fruit and invertebrates.

[edit] Flight

Flight strong and bounding usually at a height of around 50m. Looks front heavy and short-tailed.

Male's territorial flight is a like a bounding "roller-coaster", ending with a dive.

[edit] Breeding

They are monogamous and the pair bond may last several seasons. The nest is usually high in a deciduous tree, in a fork or against the trunk.

[edit] Vocalisation

Listen in an external program

[edit] References

  1. Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2017. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: v2017, with updates to August 2017. Downloaded from
  2. Birdwatchers Pocket Guide ISBN 1-85732-804-3
  3. Collins Pocket Guide to British Birds 1966
  4. BWPi
  5. Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive (retrieved Oct 2017)
  6. Collins Bird Guide ISBN 0 00 219728 6

[edit] External Links


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