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Sand Lark

From Opus

(Redirected from Indian Short-toed Lark)

Alternative name: Indian Short-toed Lark

Photo by Seyed Babak MusNear the shore in Soorgalm Creek, Iran
Photo by Seyed Babak Mus
Near the shore in Soorgalm Creek, Iran
Alaudala raytal

Calandrella raytal


[edit] Identification

Ssp. krishnakumarsinhjiPhoto by Alok TewariKathiawar Peninsula, India, Jan-2016
Ssp. krishnakumarsinhji
Photo by Alok Tewari
Kathiawar Peninsula, India, Jan-2016

12–13 cm (4¾-5 in)

  • Greyish sandy overall plumage
  • Dark brown streaks
  • White underparts, sparsely and indistinctly dark-streaked on the flanks
  • Greyish-white supercilium
  • White cheeks
  • Long slender bill
  • Shortish tail

[edit] Distribution

Middle East and Asia:
Middle East: occurs only in Iran
Asia: Tibet, Nepal
South Asia: Pakistan, India, Eastern and Western Himalayas
Southeast Asia: Indochina and Myanmar

[edit] Taxonomy

[edit] Subspecies

Photo by Shantilal VaruKutch, Gujarat, India, June 2014
Photo by Shantilal Varu
Kutch, Gujarat, India, June 2014

There are 3 subecies[1]:

  • A. r. raytal:
  • A. r. krishnakumarsinhji:
  • North West India (Kathiawar Peninsula)
  • A. r. adamsi:
  • Coastal north-western India

[edit] Habitat

Salt pans, river banks, and river islets, sandy coastal areas.

[edit] Behaviour

DisplayingPhoto by Shantilal VaruBhavnagar, Gujarat, India, April 2014
Photo by Shantilal Varu
Bhavnagar, Gujarat, India, April 2014

[edit] Diet

There is little detail known about their diet, but it is known to consist of seeds, invertebrates and all snails.

[edit] Breeding

Nesting Season: February to May. The nest on the ground forming a cup-shaped depression for the eggs; usually at the base of a shrub. It is lined with grass and hair etc. The clutch consists of two or three eggs which have brown freckles on and yellowis or greyish-white background. They, and the young, are cared for by both adults.

[edit] Vocalisation

Listen in an external program
Recording by Alok Tewari
Pong Dam Lake Wildlife and Bird Sanctuary, India, Jan-2011
Call given by the bird circling overhead, recorded while sitting in a boat during bird-census.

[edit] References

  1. Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2016. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: v2016, with updates to August 2016. Downloaded from
  2. Avibase
  3. Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive (retrieved August 2016)
  4. Wikipedia

[edit] External Links


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