- Limosa lapponica
37–41 cm (14½-16 in)
In breeding plumage: belly rufous with no or little barring, upperparts dark, and bill slightly upturned, dark with paler base.
In non-breeding plumage: breast finely streaked grey, belly whitish, back grey with streaking, bill bicoloured with pink base, and long supercilium extending back past eye.
In juvenile plumage: breast pale buff-grey, back patterned with white and buffy-grey, upturned bill bicoloured, and long supercilium extending back past eye.
In flight: inner wings grey, outer wing dark grey; no wingbar. Tail finely barred grey. Rump and lower back white or grey, depending on subspecies.
- Breeds in northern Palearctic: extreme northern Scandinavia (Norway, Finland, limited in Sweden), Arctic Russia (Kola Peninsula eastwards), and Alaska.
- Migration most active March to early June (south to north), and August-October (north to south). Seen regularly en route through the Baltic Sea, North Sea, and Atlantic coasts. Rare to find any distance inland.
- Winters to southern Africa and Australasia. Immature birds (one year old) often remain in the wintering range for their entire first summer.
Three subspecies currently accepted:
- L. l. lapponica: Rump and lower back white; underwing white
- L. l. menzbieri: Intermediate; rump, lower back and underwing lightly barred grey.
- L. l. baueri: Rump and lower back barred grey as in the back and tail; underwing strongly barred.
- Coastal estuaries and sheltered sandy shores.
- Arctic breeding habitat is lowland tundra; sometimes in upland areas and among trees.
A very strong migrant; L. l. baueri makes the longest non-stop flights of any bird, over 11,500 km from Alaska to New Zealand during autumn migration (but two stages on spring migration, with a stop-over on the east coast of China).
Very gregarious in the winter, forming huge flocks with other waders at the water's edge.
The diet includes worms, snails and insects.
It nests on the ground, usually in short vegetation, in marshy areas above the tree-line.
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