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Length 39-47 cm (15-18") excluding elongated tail-feathers of male: 10-15cm(4-6")
Wing Span 65-82 cm (26-32")
Complex moult produces at least three different-looking plumage aspects annually. However, assertion that scapulars and feathers on side of head and neck are moulted three times a year now questioned. The three apparent plumage aspects can better be explained by overlapping prebasic and prealternate molts. Breast, upper mantle and rest of head and neck are molted twice, and rest of plumage once a year.
North America, Europe and Asia.
Arctic in summer; winters down both coasts of North America to mid-latitudes of U.S. Rare occurrences inland and along Gulf Coast, and a single occurrence in the Caribbean.
In Europe in winter along coasts in Western Europe, rarer inland.
BirdLife International. 2018. Clangula hyemalis (amended version of 2017 assessment). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T22680427A122303234. Downloaded on 11 September 2018.
Carboneras, C. & Kirwan, G.M. (2018). Long-tailed Duck (Clangula hyemalis). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from https://www.hbw.com/node/52919 on 11 September 2018).
Howell, S. N. G. (2010) Molt in North American Birds. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston & New York.
Morlan, J. (2009). What, if anything, is "eclipse" plumage. Birding 41(6):50-52.
Pyle, P. (2008) Identification Guide to North American Birds - Part II. Slate Creek Press, Point Reyes Station, California.
Robertson, G. J. and J. L. Savard (2002). Long-tailed Duck (Clangula hyemalis), version 2.0. In The Birds of North America (A. F. Poole and F. B. Gill, Editors). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA. https://doi.org/10.2173/bna.651
Todd, F. S. (1979) Waterfowl - Ducks, Geese & Swans of the World. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, New York & London.