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Yellow-crowned Night Heron

From Opus

Adult subspecies N. v. bancroftiPhoto © by geomorphSouth Andros Island, Bahamas, 21 March 2004
Adult subspecies N. v. bancrofti
Photo © by geomorph
South Andros Island, Bahamas, 21 March 2004
Nyctanassa violacea

Contents

[edit] Identification

51–70 cm (51-27½ in)
Grey body, Pale yellow crown, red eyes and short yellow legs, white stripe below the eye completely surrounded by black. Black feather centers produce a pattern on the wings. The bill has a specific shape, with the culmen tapering down and the mandible tapering up to the tip of the bill so that the bill overall is shaped like a chisel.

Juveniles are mainly brown flecked with white or gray.

[edit] Flight

In flight will have strong legs protruding back beyond the short tail and the neck held in a compact S shape.

Juvenile, nominate N. v. violacea  Photo © by jonsund Anastasia State Park, St. Augustine, Florida, 10 September 2009
Juvenile, nominate N. v. violacea
Photo © by jonsund
Anastasia State Park, St. Augustine, Florida, 10 September 2009

[edit] Similar species

Black-crowned Night Heron and Boat-billed Heron are the most similar to both adults and juveniles, and the juvenile additionally has some similarities to American Bittern. Notice the shape of the bill of the Black-crowned Night-Heron which has lower edge of the mandible straight.

[edit] Distribution

North, Central and South America and the Caribbean.
North America: limited to eastern parts where breeding coastally from Maine to Florida and the along the Gulf Coast and inland from the Great Lakes to Colorado and Texas. Recently expanded to Southern California breeding north to Ventura County.[5]
Central America: Range continues along Gulf Coast of Mexico and along the Atlantic side south to Panama and also occurs along the Pacific coast from Baja California southwards.
South America: occurs in coastal areas from Colombia to Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil in the east, as well as south to northern Peru in the west and on the Galapagos Islands.
The Caribbean: Also occurs throughout the West Indies and has been reintroduced to Bermuda.

Most northern birds move southwards after breeding to winter in the southern USA, Mexico, Central America and the West Indies. Vagrants recorded north to Nova Scotia and Newfoundland.

[edit] Taxonomy

[edit] Subspecies

This is a polytypic species. Six subspecies are recognised[1]:

Immature nominate N. v. violacea in flightPhoto © by STEFFRO1Huntington Beach State Park, South Carolina, 18 July 2014
Immature nominate N. v. violacea in flight
Photo © by STEFFRO1
Huntington Beach State Park, South Carolina, 18 July 2014

[edit] Habitat

Mainly coastal areas including rocky shores, mudflats and mangroves. Also inland on lakeshores and riverbanks. Breeding in swamps and marshes.

[edit] Behaviour

The degree to which they are active during day or dawn/dusk varies both geographically and with time of year; they are more likely to be encountered before dark when they have young in the nest.

[edit] Breeding

Mainly colonial nesters in trees or shrubs. The platform nest is built of sticks near water. The clutch consists of 3–5 pale blue-green eggs.

[edit] Diet

The diet includes crustaceans, molluscs, frogs, aquatic insects and small fish, but one favorite food is land crabs; their bills are shaped like chisels and used to hammer a hole in the back of the crab shell.

[edit] Vocalisations

Commonest call is "Scaup" similar to "Quock" Call of Black-crowned Night-Heron but higher pitched.

Remains of Land Crab (favorite food)  Photo © by njlarsen Cabrits National Park, Dominica, 24 July 2010
Remains of Land Crab (favorite food)
Photo © by njlarsen
Cabrits National Park, Dominica, 24 July 2010

[edit] References

  1. Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2018. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: v2018. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/
  2. Birdforum member personal observations
  3. Martínez-Vilalta, A., Motis, A. & Kirwan, G.M. (2018). Yellow-crowned Night-heron (Nyctanassa violacea). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from https://www.hbw.com/node/52706 on 17 October 2018).
  4. Wikipedia contributors. (2018, September 4). Yellow-crowned night heron. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 10:19, October 17, 2018, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Yellow-crowned_night_heron&oldid=858077943
  5. Lehman, P. E. "The Birds of Santa Barbara County, California", Revised edition, July 2018, available at https://sites.google.com/site/lehmanbosbc/, 2018. Original edition: The Vertebrate Museum, University of California, Santa Barbara, 1994.
  6. Watts, B. D. (2011). Yellow-crowned Night-Heron (Nyctanassa violacea), version 2.0. In The Birds of North America (A. F. Poole, Editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA. https://doi.org/10.2173/bna.161

[edit] External Links


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