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Europe, Asia, Africa, North America and Greenland. Europe: Breeds in most of Europe including for example Iceland and the Faroe Islands, in the south only at higher elevation. These populations winter in Africa. North America and Greenland: Populations breeding in Greenland and eastern Canada migrates to Africa (via western Europe). Populations breeding in Alaska and northwestern Canada migrate by a western route through Asia and the Middle East to eastern Africa south of the Sahara. Both of these populations give rise to vagrants seen further south in the Americas and The Caribbean. Asia: Breeds across the entire northern half of the continent, migrating to sub-Saharan Africa. Africa: As long as the taxon O. o. seebohmi is considered part of Northern Wheatear, there are breeding birds in the Atlas Mountains of northwestern Africa. Africa is important as the winter range for almost all populations, in a broad belt from Senegal east to Sudan and south in eastern Africa to Zambia. A few also winter in southwest Asia.
Nest is on ground on dry tundra, usually in hole in a wall, under stones, or in old rabbit burrow. and is a cup of grass, twigs, weeds, lined with finer material such as moss, lichens, rootlets. The clutch is usually 5-6 pale blue eggs; unmarked, or with fine reddish brown dots, which are incubated by the female for 13-14 days.
Song usually in up to 3 sections. First section has 1 or 2 notes, second has 2 or 3 but up to 10 rapidly repeated notes; third section tends to be quieter, is often a repetition of first section. E. g. in the song phrase zee zee widdle ee, the first and third sections are high-pitched zee or ee notes. Call is a straight whistle.
Svensson, L., Mullarney, K., & ZetterstrĂ¶m, D. (2009). Collins Bird Guide, 2nd edition. Collins ISBN 978 0 00 726814 6
Bairlein, F.; Norris, D.R.; Nagel, R.; Bulte, M.; Voigt, C.C.; Fox, J.W.; Hussell, D.J.T.; Schmaljohann, H. (2012). Cross-hemisphere migration of a 25 g songbird. Biology Letters. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2011.1223
Collar, N. (2018). Northern Wheatear (Oenanthe oenanthe). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from https://www.hbw.com/node/58539 on 13 September 2018).
Cramp, S. 1988. The birds of the Western Palearctic, Vol. 5: tyrant flycatchers to thrushes. Oxford, U.K: Oxford Univ. Press.
Kren, J. and A. C. Zoerb (1997). Northern Wheatear (Oenanthe oenanthe), version 2.0. In The Birds of North America (A. F. Poole and F. B. Gill, Editors). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA. https://doi.org/10.2173/bna.316
Thorup, K., Troels Eske Ortvad, & RabĂ¸l, J. (2006). Do Nearctic Northern Wheatears (Oenanthe oenanthe leucorhoa) Migrate Nonstop to Africa? The Condor, 108(2), 446-451. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/4151031