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Orange-crowned Warbler

From Opus

Photo by janruss Edmonds, Washington, USA
Photo by janruss
Edmonds, Washington, USA
Oreothlypis celata

Vermivora celata Leiothlypis celata

Contents

[edit] Identification

13 cm (5 inches)
Small, active, insect-eating bird with thin, very pointed bill. Indistinct yellow supercilium. Indistinct broken eye ring. Grayish to olive head, bac, and wings. No wing bars. Yellow to dull yellow/olive underparts with blurry, indistinct streaks on breast. Yellow undertail coverts. Orange crown rarely shows; most visible when crown feathers are raised, and from behind.
Females and immatures are somewhat duller.

[edit] Variations

Female or 1 WinterPhoto by digishooterHart Park, Kern County, California, USA, November 2011
Female or 1 Winter
Photo by digishooter
Hart Park, Kern County, California, USA, November 2011

Considerable variation in plumage with western birds being somewhat yellower and eastern birds grayer.

[edit] Distribution

Alaska and almost universal in Canada (absent only in the southeast and far northeast); Western United States from Washington to western Montana south to California to western tip of Texas. In migration found almost anywhere in the United States but far more widespread in west.

[edit] Taxonomy

It was formerly included in Vermivora, Gill and Donsker place it in Leiothlypis.

[edit] Subspecies

There are 4 subspecies[1]:

Photo by UncleGus_24Green Valley, Arizona, February 2012
Photo by UncleGus_24
Green Valley, Arizona, February 2012
  • O. c. celata:
  • O. c. orestera:
  • Rocky Mountains to south-western US and western Texas; winters to ssouthern Mexico
  • O. c. lutescens
  • O. sordida:
  • Coastal southern California and islands off south-western California and Baja

[edit] Habitat

Marshes, suburban gardens, semi-wooded areas, oak savannah, riparian, open grass beside rivers and ponds.

[edit] Behaviour

[edit] Diet

Their diet consists mostly of insects and spiders during the summer months, switching to berries and fruit in the winter. Very active feeders in low shrubs, sometimes hovering.

[edit] Breeding

The female chooses the nest site, which is usually on the ground under dense vegetation, but may be in a shrub, low tree, fern, or vine. The nest is an open cup formed from grasses, shredded bark and moss, lined with fine grass and hair. The clutch consists of 4 to 5 eggs which are incubated for 11 to 13 days. Both parents feed the young.

[edit] References

  1. Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2015. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: v2015, with updates to August 2015. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/
  2. Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive (retrieved August 2015)
  3. BF Member observations
  4. All About Birds

[edit] External Links


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