• BirdForum is the net's largest birding community, dedicated to wild birds and birding, and is absolutely FREE!

    You are most welcome to register for an account, which allows you to take part in lively discussions in the forum, post your pictures in the gallery and more.

Prothonotary Warbler - BirdForum Opus

(Redirected from Protonotaria citrea)
Photo © by KC Foggin
Myrtle Beach, SC, USA, May 2017

Alternative name: Golden Swamp Warbler

Protonotaria citrea

Identification

Female
Photo © by STEFFRO1
Collins Creek Landing, Murrells Inlet, South Carolina, 24 April 2020

14 cm (5½ in)
Male

  • Bright orange-yellow head
  • Gold overall plumage
  • Bluish-grey wings

Female: slightly duller

  • Olive upperparts
  • Bluish-grey tail
  • Yellow underparts
  • Long pointed bill
  • Black legs

Females and immature birds are duller and have a yellow head.

Distribution

Main breeding range from southwest Iowa east to Ohio south to eastern Texas east to Alabama and from southern New Jersey south to northern Florida. Mostly absent from the Appalachians. Small local populations in Pennsylvania, New York, Massachusetts, Connecticut and Vermont. It winters in the West Indies, Central America and northern South America. Rare vagrant to California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Arizona and New Mexico.

Taxonomy

Photo © by STEFFRO1
Collins Creek Landing, Murrells Inlet, South Carolina, May 2017

This is a monotypic species[1].

Habitat

Seasonally flooded hardwood forests and swamps, along creeks and rivers.

Behaviour

Diet

Their main diet consists of insects such as butterflies, moths, flies, spiders and beetles; with the addition of molluscs such as snails. Outwith the breeding season will also include seeds, fruit and nectar. They forage low to the ground in shrubs and on fallen logs.

Breeding

They construct their nest near water in tree cavities about 2 m above ground, sometimes using old holes from the Downy Woodpecker.. It is lined with moss. The clutch contains 3-7 glossy white eggs with brownish spots. Incubation takes about 12-14 days, fledging usually after 10 days.

They are sometimes parasitised by the Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater), or outcompeted for nest sites by the House Wren (Troglodytes aedon).

Vocalisation

Call: tsweet, twseet, twseet, twseet.

References

  1. Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, S. M. Billerman, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2019. The eBird/Clements Checklist of Birds of the World: v2019. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/
  2. Petit, L. J. (2020). Prothonotary Warbler (Protonotaria citrea), version 1.0. In Birds of the World (A. F. Poole and F. B. Gill, Editors). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA. https://doi.org/10.2173/bow.prowar.01

Recommended Citation

External Links

Top