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South America: In Colombia, pacific slope in drier parts of upper Dagua Valley (mostly above Cisneros), upper Patia Valley and mid Cauca Valley in Valle (Cali, Palmira, and Buga area). Spottily in north Venezuela, east Brazil, and Mato Grosso, Paraguay, Argentina, and east Bolivia.
There are 5 subspecies:
Placed in the genus Cyanocompsa by some authorities.
Woodland and caatinga, thickets in semi-open areas. At heights around 300-1600m.
Song: recalls Blue-black Grosbeak's but higher-pitched and faster; a flat warbled wee-se-weep wee-so-weeep wee see wee-so-weeep without latter's two slow introductory phrases.
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