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White-crested Elaenia

From Opus

Subspecies chilensisPhoto © by Carlos Henrique. Location: Penápolis - SP, Brazil.
Subspecies chilensis
Photo © by Carlos Henrique.
Location: Penápolis - SP, Brazil.
Elaenia albiceps

Includes: Chilean Elaenia


[edit] Identification

Length 14·5–15 cm (5¾-6 in)
Typical appearance of other small olive flycatchers, but has a large white crown patch, which is usually raised and quite obvious. Two wing-bars, (strong and white in the Chilean subspecies), but less distinct in the Peruvian subspecies, which also has a yellowish crest and eye-ring.

[edit] Distribution

Subspecies chilensisPhoto © by Rodrigo ReyesPhoto taken: Puerto Bertrand, Patagonia, Chile
Subspecies chilensis
Photo © by Rodrigo Reyes
Photo taken: Puerto Bertrand, Patagonia, Chile

Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Falkland Islands, Paraguay, Peru, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, and Uruguay. Accidental vagrant to the United States with one record in Texas[3].

[edit] Taxonomy

[edit] Subspecies

Six subspecies are recognized[1]. Among these, two are especially noteworthy because they may eventually be separated into different species:

  • E. a. modesta (Peruvian) is found in arid tropical western Peru (La Libertad) and in lowlands in the northernmost part of Chile; at least partly resident year round
  • E. a. chilensis (Chilean, sometimes split as full species) is breeding significantly south of modesta, in the Andes of Bolivia to Tierra del Fuego but highly migratory and completely leaves the breeding areas travelling north to winter in Brazil. Recent results indicate this form is closer related to Sierran Elaenia
Subspecies chilensisPhoto © by Luis RParcela Araguaney. Santiago de Chile, February 2016
Subspecies chilensis
Photo © by Luis R
Parcela Araguaney. Santiago de Chile, February 2016

The other four subspecies are:

  • E. a. griseigularis:
  • Andes of south-western Colombia (Nariño) to Ecuador and north-western Peru
  • E. a. diversa:
  • Central Andes of Peru (Cajamarca to Huánuco)
  • E. a. urubambae:
  • Subtropical south-easterb Peru (Cuzco)
  • E. a. albiceps:
  • Extreme se Peru (Puno) and nw Bolivia

[edit] Habitat

Shrubland, forests or gardens, with slight differences in preference for the different populations; the Peruvian subspecies can be found in urban areas, agricultural areas, and riparian areas while chilensis seems more closely related to forest in breeding season.

[edit] Behaviour

Some populations are residents while others migrate north in winter.

[edit] Diet

Their diet consists mostly of insects and berries. Occasionally they have been observed feeding on nectar.

[edit] Breeding

Their cup-shaped nest is made from twigs, bound together with vegetable fibres.

[edit] References

  1. Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2015. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: v2015, with updates to August 2015. Downloaded from
  2. Alvaro Jaramillo. 2003. Birds of Chile. Princeton Field Guides. ISBN 0-691-11740-3
  3. 51st supplement to the AOU checklist of North American birds
  4. Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive (retrieved February 2016)

[edit] External Links


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