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Includes: Myrtle Warbler; Audubon's Warbler; West Mexico Warbler; Goldman's Warbler
14â€“15 cm (5Â˝-6 in)
Females are more brownish and in the Audubon's form may have whitish or buff throat.
Birds of subspecies nigrifrons (West Mexico Warbler) are large and have dark mantle, while Goldman's Warbler (goldmani) are large and have black mantle.
Breeding males of the Myrtle form and the form sometimes called Audubon's Warbler both have grey mantle with black stripes.
The Myrtle form has white throat and black on side of head mostly surrounded by white below the grey crown, while Audubon's have yellow throat, reduced white markings and less contrast between ear-coverts and crown.
North America's most common warbler. Breeds from Alaska east to northern Quebec (absent only in arctic region) south across most of the western United States; northern Minnesota and Michigan; New York; western Pennsylvania, and New England; also along the Appalachians south to West Virginia.
Casual vagrant to Great Britain (22 records).
Formerly placed in genus Dendroica. The eastern (Myrtle) and western (Audubon's) races of this species were once considered separate species. Some authorities still do.
There are 4 subspecies2
Coniferous and mixed forests also winters in open area.
Diet mostly insectivorous but will eat berries and other vegetation. Audubon's group eat some fruit in the winter months.
Nest is a bulky cup of twigs, grasses and moss, lined with hair and feathers usually in a tree but sometimes on the ground. Clutch of 3â€“5 eggs, usually four. Nests fequently parasitized by Brown-headed Cowbird
Song a variable and loosely structured rather slow, flat trill, often sounding two-parted and usually rising (but occasionally falling) at end.Usual call a sharp, emphatic â€śchupâ€ť or â€śchekâ€ť; flight call a soft, clear, high-pitched â€śsipâ€ť or â€śtseeâ€ť. Calls differ between subspecies groups.
This species is a largely "facultative migrant" responding to changing food supplies. Otherwise short-distance to long-distance migrant, and in autumn moves later than do most other parulids. Race S. c. goldmani.
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