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| ||Southern [[South America]] : found in [[Ecuador]], [[Bolivia]], [[Brazil]], [[Paraguay]], [[Uruguay]], [[Chile]], [[Argentina]] and the [[Falkland Islands]].|| ||Southern [[South America]] : found in [[Ecuador]], [[Bolivia]], [[Brazil]], [[Paraguay]], [[Uruguay]], [[Chile]], [[Argentina]] and the [[Falkland Islands]].|
| ||==Taxonomy==|| ||==Taxonomy==|
|-||This is a [[Dictionary_M-O#M|monotypic]] species<sup>[[#References|]]</sup>, which is sometimes placed in genus ''[[:Category:Larus|Larus]]''.||+||Sometimes treated as a subspecies of the similar [[Black-headed Gull]] and sometimes placed in genus ''[[:Category:Larus|Larus]]''.|
| ||+||This is usually treated as a [[Dictionary_M-O#M|monotypic]] species<sup>[[#References|]]</sup> but some authors classify birds from northern Argentina to southern Brazil as the nominate race while ''C. m. glaucodes'' with more white in its wing-tips is found throughout the rest of the bird's range.|
| || |
| ||==Habitat==|| ||==Habitat==|
Revision as of 10:35, 22 January 2019
- Chroicocephalus maculipennis
35â37 cm (13Â¾-14Â½ in)
- Grey upperparts
- White underparts
- Brown hood
- White eye crescents
- White nape, neck and breast
- Grey-white wings
- Deep red bill and legs
- White head
- Dark spots behind the eye
- Mottled brown head, back and wings.
- Wings with narrow black trailing edge
- Tail with narrow, black subterminal bar
- Bill brownish-black.
- Pinkish-brown legs and feet
They bear a strong resemblance to the Black-headed Gull but Brown-hooded Gull has a slightly darker mantle, narrower dark subterminal band on its primaries, more dark at the bases of its outermost primaries, and usually distinct white primary tips cf. Black-headed.
Southern South America : found in Ecuador, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, Chile, Argentina and the Falkland Islands.
Sometimes treated as a subspecies of the similar Black-headed Gull and sometimes placed in genus Larus.
This is usually treated as a monotypic species but some authors classify birds from northern Argentina to southern Brazil as the nominate race while C. m. glaucodes with more white in its wing-tips is found throughout the rest of the bird's range.
Humid forest, coast, rivers, lakes and marshes.
Catches prey directly from the water's surface, often around kelp beds. Also forages along the shore, as well as at sea, lakes, ponds and marshes.
Sometimes solitary but they usually nest in colonies of 10-50 pairs, occasionally up to 500 nests. Colony locations often change from year to year according to food resources and nest site availability. The nest may be a floating platform of aquatic vegetation, a bulky grass structure on dry ground, or in a hollow lined with vegetation. Nests are often located in aquatic vegetation around edges of lakes, ponds or marshes, or sometimes on shingle beaches or rocky headlands, or in remote coastal plains. The clutch consists of 2 to 4 olive-brown eggs with rufous and greyish markings.
The diet includes small fish and marine invertebrates such as mollusks and crustaceans. On land, they take earthworms and insects. They also eat carrion and offal when available. In cultivated areas they may follow the plow where they feed on numerous invertebrates, including Lepidoptera and parasitic insects. Like most gulls, they also may steal food from other bird species too.
Relatively sedentary, dispersing to large rivers and coastal areas after breeding when some move north to Northern Chile and Eastern Brazil
Calls include harsh croaking and screaming notes sometimes accompanying ritual displays.
- Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2018. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: v2018. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/
- Arthur Grosset
- Birds of the Falkland Islands
- Jaramillo, A. 2003. Birds of Chile. Princeton & Oxford: Princeton Univ. Press. ISBN 978-0691117409
- Howell, S.N.G. & Dunn, J.L. (2007) Gulls of the Americas. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.
- Burger, J., Gochfeld, M. & Garcia, E.F.J. (2019). Brown-hooded Gull (Larus maculipennis). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from https://www.hbw.com/node/53994 on 22 January 2019).
- Brown-hooded Gull (Chroicocephalus maculipennis), In Neotropical Birds Online (T. S. Schulenberg, Editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA. retrieved from Neotropical Birds Online: https://neotropical.birds.cornell.edu/Species-Account/nb/species/brhgul2