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Imperial Cormorant

From Opus

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The diet of this species is mainly fish. It can dive to a depth of almost 25m and eats mainly Argentine anchoita. The diet of this species is mainly fish. It can dive to a depth of almost 25m and eats mainly Argentine anchoita.
==References== ==References==
-#{{Ref-Clements6thAug16}}# Alvaro Jaramillo. 2003. Birds of Chile. Princeton Field Guides. ISBN 0-691-11740-3+#{{Ref-Clements6thAug18}}#{{Ref-Jaramillo03}}# [http://www.birdforum.net/showthread.php?t=131637 Thread] in the taxonomy forum discussing the different splits and lumps in the species mentioned here.
-# [http://www.birdforum.net/showthread.php?t=131637 Thread] in the taxonomy forum discussing the different splits and lumps in the species mentioned here. +#Gómez Laich, A. (2012). Imperial Cormorant (''Phalacrocorax atriceps''), version 1.0. In Neotropical Birds Online (T. S. Schulenberg, Editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA. https://doi.org/10.2173/nb.impcor1.01
 +#Orta, J., Garcia, E.F.J., Christie, D.A., Jutglar, F. & Kirwan, G.M. (2019). Imperial Shag (''Leucocarbo atriceps''). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from https://www.hbw.com/node/52649 on 24 January 2019).
 +#Davis, M. 2017. "''Phalacrocorax atriceps''" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed January 24, 2019 at https://animaldiversity.org/accounts/Phalacrocorax_atriceps/
{{ref}} {{ref}}
 +
==External Links== ==External Links==
{{GSearch|Phalacrocorax+atriceps}} {{GSearch|Phalacrocorax+atriceps}}
[[Category:Birds]] [[Category:Phalacrocorax]] [[Category:Birds]] [[Category:Phalacrocorax]]

Revision as of 10:29, 24 January 2019

Includes King Cormorant; Alternative Names: Blue-eyed Shag; Imperial Shag

Dark-cheeked formPhoto by Sussex bird man Beagle Straits, Ushuaia, Argentina, November 2005
Dark-cheeked form
Photo by Sussex bird man
Beagle Straits, Ushuaia, Argentina, November 2005
Phalacrocorax atriceps

Contents

Identification

Black feathers upper parts, white belly and neck. Ring of blue skin around its eyes and a bright orange nasal tuft and black crest above eyes, all of which is missing in immature birds which are browner than adults.

Two main variations: dark-cheeked forms dominate on the Atlantic side while white-cheeked forms dominate on the Pacific side of South America. These forms meet and hybridize (to some extent) in the Patagonia/Magellan Strait region.

Distribution

Seacoasts of extreme southern South America and sub-Antarctic islands: Falkland Islands, Heard Island and Macquarie Island.

White-cheeked formPhoto by Rodrigo Reyes Puerto Montt, southern Chile, February 2009
White-cheeked form
Photo by Rodrigo Reyes
Puerto Montt, southern Chile, February 2009

Taxonomy

Sometimes placed in genus Leucocarbo.

Subspecies1

  • P. a. atriceps - Islands and coasts of s Argentina and Chile
  • P. a. albiventer - Falkland Islands

Status of questionable forms

South Georgia Shag, Heard Island Shag, Crozet Shag, Macquarie Shag and Antarctic Shag have recently been split from Imperial Shag by a majority of authorities, but at this time, not everybody agrees.

Dark-cheeked birds from southern South America have in the past been known as the full species King Shag (Phalacrocorax albiventer) together with birds from the Falklands. Due to reports on hybridization with atriceps these were first lumped as a subspecies under Imperial Shag, and later, the mainland birds were considered a color morph of atriceps leaving the population on Falklands as the current subspecies albiventer. Not everybody agree that the current treatment of the dark-cheeked form is the best possible treatment[3], but more data are necessary.

Habitat

Rocky sea coasts.

Behaviour

The diet of this species is mainly fish. It can dive to a depth of almost 25m and eats mainly Argentine anchoita.

References

  1. Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2018. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: v2018. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/
  2. Jaramillo, A. 2003. Birds of Chile. Princeton & Oxford: Princeton Univ. Press. ISBN 978-0691117409
  3. Thread in the taxonomy forum discussing the different splits and lumps in the species mentioned here.
  4. Gómez Laich, A. (2012). Imperial Cormorant (Phalacrocorax atriceps), version 1.0. In Neotropical Birds Online (T. S. Schulenberg, Editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA. https://doi.org/10.2173/nb.impcor1.01
  5. Orta, J., Garcia, E.F.J., Christie, D.A., Jutglar, F. & Kirwan, G.M. (2019). Imperial Shag (Leucocarbo atriceps). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from https://www.hbw.com/node/52649 on 24 January 2019).
  6. Davis, M. 2017. "Phalacrocorax atriceps" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed January 24, 2019 at https://animaldiversity.org/accounts/Phalacrocorax_atriceps/

External Links

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