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Plain Xenops

From Opus

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==Identification== ==Identification==
-12 cm long, weighs 12 g. Light brown head, buff supercilium and whitish malar stripe. The upperparts are brown, becoming rufous on the tail and rump, and there is a buff bar on the darker brown wings. The underparts are unstreaked pale olive brown. The sexes are similar, but young birds have dark brown throats.+[[Image:Plain_Xenops.jpg|thumb|450px|right|Bird from the Atlantic Forest population<br />Photo by {{user|jarbas+mattos|jarbas mattos}}<br />Lore São luis do Paraitinga, [[Brazil]]]]
 +11–12 cm (4¼-4¾ in)
 +*Light brown head
 +*Buff [[Topography#Heads|supercilium]]
 +*Whitish [[Topography#Heads|malar]] stripe.
 +*Brown upperparts
 +*Rufous tail and rump
 +*Buff bar on the darker brown wings
 +*Olive-brown unstreaked underparts
 +The sexes are similar, but young birds have dark brown throats
==Distribution== ==Distribution==
Line 9: Line 18:
Central America: From Southern [[Mexico]] through [[Panama]]. <br /> Central America: From Southern [[Mexico]] through [[Panama]]. <br />
South America: west of the Andes in [[Ecuador]] and [[Colombia]], and in northern Colombia connected with the large area east of the Andes where the species is found south to [[Bolivia]] and [[Brazil]]ian Amazon. A separate population is found in the Atlantic Forest part of Brazil to [[Paraguay]] and northeastern [[Argentina]]. South America: west of the Andes in [[Ecuador]] and [[Colombia]], and in northern Colombia connected with the large area east of the Andes where the species is found south to [[Bolivia]] and [[Brazil]]ian Amazon. A separate population is found in the Atlantic Forest part of Brazil to [[Paraguay]] and northeastern [[Argentina]].
-[[Image:Plain_Xenops.jpg|thumb|450px|right|Bird from the Atlantic Forest population<br />Photo by {{user|jarbas+mattos|jarbas mattos}}<br />Lore São luis do Paraitinga, [[Brazil]]]] 
==Taxonomy== ==Taxonomy==
It is a member of the South American bird family Furnariidae, a group in which many species build elaborate clay nests, giving rise to the English name for the family of "ovenbirds". It is a member of the South American bird family Furnariidae, a group in which many species build elaborate clay nests, giving rise to the English name for the family of "ovenbirds".
- +====Subspecies====
Eleven subspecies are recognized<sup>[[#References|[1]]]</sup>: Eleven subspecies are recognized<sup>[[#References|[1]]]</sup>:
-*''X. m. mexicanus''+*''X. m. mexicanus'': Tropical southern [[Mexico]] to [[Honduras]]
-*''X. m. ridgwayi''+*''X. m. ridgwayi'': Tropical [[Nicaragua]] to [[Costa Rica]] and western [[Panama]]
-*''X. m. littoralis''+*''X. m. littoralis'': Tropical eastern Panama to western [[Ecuador]] (El Oro)
-*''X. m. neglectus''+*''X. m. neglectus'': North [[Colombia]] and northern [[Venezuela]]
-*''X. m. remoratus''+*''X. m. olivaceus'': Lowlands of north-eastern [[Colombia]]
-*''X. m. ruficaudus''+*''X. m. remoratus'': Tropical eastern Colombia to southern Venezuela and northern [[Brazil]]
-*''X. m. olivaceus''+*''X. m. ruficaudus'': Extreme eastern Colombia to Venezuela, the [[Guianas]] and northern Brazil
-*''X. m. obsoletus''+*''X. m. obsoletus'': Tropical eastern Ecuador to eastern [[Peru]], northern [[Bolivia]] and western Brazil
-*''X. m. genibarbis''+*''X. m. genibarbis'': North Brazil south of the Amazon (Rio Madeira to Maranhão)
-*''X. m. alagoanus''+*''X. m. alagoanus'': north-eastern Brazil (Paraíba, Pernambuco, and Alagoas)
-*''X. m. minutus''+*''X. m. minutus'': eastern Brazil (north to southern Bahia) to eastern Paraguay and north-eastern [[Argentina]]
- +
==Habitat== ==Habitat==
-Moist lowland forests.+Cloud and secondary forests. Observed at heights between 55 m and 228 m.
==Behaviour== ==Behaviour==
-The nest is made of shredded plant fibres placed in a hole between 1.5 and 9 m high in a decaying tree trunk or branch. 2 white eggs are laid, incubated by both sexes. +====Breeding====
- +The nest is made of shredded plant fibres placed in a hole between 1.5 and 9 m high in a decaying tree trunk or branch. The clutch contains 2 white eggs which are incubated by both sexes.
-Diet includes insects.+====Diet====
 +Diet consists of insect eggs, termites, katydids, spiders, ants and their larvae,
==References== ==References==
#{{Ref-Clements6thAug17}}# Ridgely and Tudor 2009. Field guide to the songbirds of South America - The Passerines. University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-0-292-71979-8 #{{Ref-Clements6thAug17}}# Ridgely and Tudor 2009. Field guide to the songbirds of South America - The Passerines. University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-0-292-71979-8
# Restall et al. 2006. Birds of Northern South America. Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300124156 # Restall et al. 2006. Birds of Northern South America. Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300124156
# Ber van Perlo. 2009. A field guide to the Birds of Brazil. Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA. ISBN 978-0-19-530155-7 # Ber van Perlo. 2009. A field guide to the Birds of Brazil. Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA. ISBN 978-0-19-530155-7
 +#Wikipedia
 +#BF Member observations
 +{{ref}}
==External Links== ==External Links==
{{GSearch|Xenops+minutus}} {{GSearch|Xenops+minutus}}
[[Category:Birds]] [[Category:Xenops]] [[Category:Birds]] [[Category:Xenops]]

Current revision

Photo by Stanley Jones Panama Province,  Panama, February, 2011
Photo by Stanley Jones
Panama Province, Panama, February, 2011
Xenops minutus

Contents

[edit] Identification

Bird from the Atlantic Forest populationPhoto by jarbas mattosLore São luis do Paraitinga, Brazil
Bird from the Atlantic Forest population
Photo by jarbas mattos
Lore São luis do Paraitinga, Brazil

11–12 cm (4¼-4¾ in)

  • Light brown head
  • Buff supercilium
  • Whitish malar stripe.
  • Brown upperparts
  • Rufous tail and rump
  • Buff bar on the darker brown wings
  • Olive-brown unstreaked underparts

The sexes are similar, but young birds have dark brown throats

[edit] Distribution

Central America and South America
Central America: From Southern Mexico through Panama.
South America: west of the Andes in Ecuador and Colombia, and in northern Colombia connected with the large area east of the Andes where the species is found south to Bolivia and Brazilian Amazon. A separate population is found in the Atlantic Forest part of Brazil to Paraguay and northeastern Argentina.

[edit] Taxonomy

It is a member of the South American bird family Furnariidae, a group in which many species build elaborate clay nests, giving rise to the English name for the family of "ovenbirds".

[edit] Subspecies

Eleven subspecies are recognized[1]:

  • X. m. mexicanus: Tropical southern Mexico to Honduras
  • X. m. ridgwayi: Tropical Nicaragua to Costa Rica and western Panama
  • X. m. littoralis: Tropical eastern Panama to western Ecuador (El Oro)
  • X. m. neglectus: North Colombia and northern Venezuela
  • X. m. olivaceus: Lowlands of north-eastern Colombia
  • X. m. remoratus: Tropical eastern Colombia to southern Venezuela and northern Brazil
  • X. m. ruficaudus: Extreme eastern Colombia to Venezuela, the Guianas and northern Brazil
  • X. m. obsoletus: Tropical eastern Ecuador to eastern Peru, northern Bolivia and western Brazil
  • X. m. genibarbis: North Brazil south of the Amazon (Rio Madeira to Maranhão)
  • X. m. alagoanus: north-eastern Brazil (Paraíba, Pernambuco, and Alagoas)
  • X. m. minutus: eastern Brazil (north to southern Bahia) to eastern Paraguay and north-eastern Argentina

[edit] Habitat

Cloud and secondary forests. Observed at heights between 55 m and 228 m.

[edit] Behaviour

[edit] Breeding

The nest is made of shredded plant fibres placed in a hole between 1.5 and 9 m high in a decaying tree trunk or branch. The clutch contains 2 white eggs which are incubated by both sexes.

[edit] Diet

Diet consists of insect eggs, termites, katydids, spiders, ants and their larvae,

[edit] References

  1. Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2017. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: v2017, with updates to August 2017. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/
  2. Ridgely and Tudor 2009. Field guide to the songbirds of South America - The Passerines. University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-0-292-71979-8
  3. Restall et al. 2006. Birds of Northern South America. Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300124156
  4. Ber van Perlo. 2009. A field guide to the Birds of Brazil. Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA. ISBN 978-0-19-530155-7
  5. Wikipedia
  6. BF Member observations

[edit] External Links

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