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The most widespread sparrow in North America. Summers in the southern provinces of Canada and along the coast into Alaska. Year-round in the 48 states, extending into northern Baja California and western mainland Mexico. Winters in the south-eastern states and northeastern Mexico.
Patten and Pruitt (2009) have argued that the Song Sparrow is a Ring Species in which two populations meet at the endpoints of a ring where they act like separate biological species. However the contact zone in the Coachella Valley of Southern California where M. m. heermanni (coastal) and M. m. fallax (desert) overlap is very limited.
Arcese, P., M. K. Sogge, A. B. Marr, and M. A. Patten (2020). Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodia), version 1.0. In Birds of the World (A. F. Poole and F. B. Gill, Editors). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA. https://doi.org/10.2173/bow.sonspa.01
Rising, J. (2020). Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodia). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. (retrieved from https://www.hbw.com/node/61915 on 22 March 2020).
Patten, Michael & Pruett, Christin. (2009). The Song Sparrow, Melospiza melodia, as a ring species: Patterns of geographic variation, a revision of subspecies, and implications for speciation. Systematics and Biodiversity. 7(1):33-62. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1477200008002867.