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Four fungi and something else, Norway

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Old Sunday 30th December 2018, 01:53   #1
delia todd
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Four fungi and something else, Norway

On a forested lakeside walk in the mountains above Hell, I found these four fungi and another plant of some kind. This was the beginning of August.

I have a different view of the 2nd fungus if needed.
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Old Sunday 30th December 2018, 02:23   #2
Max S.
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The plant is a butterwort species.
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Old Sunday 30th December 2018, 10:13   #3
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Thank you Max.

I think I've seen something like it before, but never knew what it was.
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Old Sunday 30th December 2018, 14:49   #4
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3 looks like a Russula - lepida or rubra - pic of the stem would help.

As it would with the others. They differ in the fatness (or thin-ness) of the stalk and how the gills are attached to it, plus the length (height?).
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Old Sunday 30th December 2018, 15:40   #5
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Sorry Jon, I was being rushed around the loch rather trying to get a view of a Red-throated Diver.

The only one I managed to get the underside of was the second, which had this broken neighbour. I don't really like to destroy things just to get a picture, especially as I have no knowledge of fungus really.
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Old Sunday 30th December 2018, 15:48   #6
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Quote:
Originally Posted by delia todd View Post
Sorry Jon, I was being rushed around the loch rather trying to get a view of a Red-throated Diver.

The only one I managed to get the underside of was the second, which had this broken neighbour. I don't really like to destroy things just to get a picture, especially as I have no knowledge of fungus really.
You filthy twitcher you!!
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Old Sunday 30th December 2018, 15:50   #7
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Old Saturday 5th January 2019, 00:52   #8
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Now all the holidays are 'sort of' over, I wonder if anyone is around to help out some more with any ideas for this motley selection of fungus?
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Old Saturday 5th January 2019, 22:26   #9
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Hi Delia,

Sorry, but you've picked some difficult species here...

1 - Needs a shot of the underside
2?, 3 and 4 are Russula species and are beyond the realms of reality without really detailed information like mycorrhizal partner, smell, taste, stem/gill photo, spore print etc.

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Old Saturday 5th January 2019, 23:32   #10
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Hi Nick

Thanks for looking.

The best I could do was to get a picture of the neighbour to No 2 (post 5), which was already broken.

About to go and Google what a "mycorrhizal partner" is! Never heard the term before LOL.

Are you saying No 2 is a Russula sp too?
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Old Sunday 6th January 2019, 22:41   #11
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Hi Delia,

Sorry, I should have explained better!

Some fungi are only capable of existing when certain trees are present, their 'roots' (=hyphae) literally penetrating the tree roots, forming a relationship called a 'mycorrhiza', where they share and swap certain nutrients.
Sometimes this relationship is quite exclusive - For example you will only ever find Russula carpini under Hornbeam trees.
Sometimes though, the fungus is a little more 'promiscuous' and likes a broader range of trees - For example Russula nobilis likes several broadleaf trees in Fagaceae (Beech family)
...So quite often by identifying the trees in the area one can get a good idea of which mycorrhizal fungi might be present.

Yes, I originally thought number 2 could belong to the Russula foetans group (though I remain unconvinced) - That group usually has very strong odours, sometimes of crab, honey or chlorine. The specimen is unfortunately quite tatty hence my reluctance to commit to an ID.

It is (usually) quite easy to identify Russula species to genus because they have a certain type of tissue structure in the stem that breaks like a piece of chalk when snapped - Other fungi are made of tightly packed fibres (=hyphae) and 'tear' rather than 'snap'. Russula species also have a rather stout appearance, thick white flesh, gills that crumble easily when rubbed with a thumb (hence the common name 'Brittlegill), no ring on the stem, no patches or scales on the cap. And all of them are mycorrhizal so of course they always appear under trees!

The problem is there are lots of Russula species (several hundred in the UK I'd imagine) and they can sometimes be difficult to identify, even with access to a microscope and various chemicals to test reactions. I don't want to put you off, though - They're beautiful mushrooms and there are species with every cap colour you can imagine.

Cheers,
Nick
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Old Sunday 6th January 2019, 23:29   #12
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Gosh Nick.... thank you so much for all that information - it's really interesting.

I'm sorry I didn't take better note of their surroundings, it was a sort of normal Norwegian forest, lakeside edge, rather scrubby and wet. None appear to have been directly related to a particular tree though, they were just growing out of the rather mossy ground.

Looks like I'll have to send Ann (Doc Duck) round it again to report back No doubt it's under 6 inches of snow up there just now though!
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