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Spanish Sparrow

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Old Monday 4th November 2019, 20:54   #1
Peter Kovalik
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Spanish Sparrow

Melissah Rowe, Emma Whittington, Kirill Borziak, Mark Ravinet, Fabrice Eroukhmanoff, Glenn-Peter Stre, Steve Dorus, Molecular diversification of the seminal fluid proteome in a recently diverged passerine species pair, Molecular Biology and Evolution, , msz235, https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msz235

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Seminal fluid proteins (SFPs) mediate an array of post-mating reproductive processes that influence fertilization and fertility. As such, it is widely held that SFPs may contribute to post-mating, pre-zygotic (PMPZ) reproductive barriers between closely related taxa. We investigated seminal fluid (SF) diversification in a recently diverged passerine species pair (Passer domesticus and P. hispaniolensis) using a combination of proteomic and comparative evolutionary genomic approaches. First, we characterized and compared the SF proteome of the two species, revealing consistencies with known aspects of SFP biology and function in other taxa, including the presence and diversification of proteins involved in immunity and sperm maturation. Second, using whole genome resequencing data, we assessed patterns of genomic differentiation between house and Spanish sparrows. These analyses detected divergent selection on immunity-related SF genes and positive selective sweeps in regions containing a number of SF genes that also exhibited protein abundance diversification between species. Finally, we analyzed the molecular evolution of SFPs across 11 passerine species and found a significantly higher rate of positive selection in SFPs compared with the rest of the genome, as well as significant enrichments for functional pathways related to immunity in the set of positively selected SF genes. Our results suggest that selection on immunity pathways is an important determinant of passerine SF composition and evolution. Assessing the role of immunity genes in speciation in other recently diverged taxa should be prioritized given the potential role for immunity-related proteins in reproductive incompatibilities in Passer sparrows.
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Old Wednesday 6th November 2019, 16:20   #2
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Martin Pckert, Abdelkrim Ait Belkacem, Hannes Wolfgramm, Oliver Gast, David Canal, Gabriele Giacalone, Mario Lo Valvo, Melita Vamberger, Michael Wink, Jochen Martens & Heiko Stuckas. Genetic admixture despite ecological segregation in a North African sparrow hybrid zone (Aves, Passeriformes, Passer domesticus Passer hispaniolensis). Ecology and Evolution. First published: 28 October 2019 https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.5744

Abstract:

Under different environmental conditions, hybridization between the same species might result in different patterns of genetic admixture. Particularly, species pairs with large distribution ranges and long evolutionary history may have experienced several independent hybridization events over time in different zones of overlap. In birds, the diverse hybrid populations of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) and the Spanish sparrow (Passer hispaniolensis) provide a striking example. Throughout their range of sympatry, these two species do not regularly interbreed; however, a stabilized hybrid form (Passer italiae) exists on the Italian Peninsula and on several Mediterranean islands. The spatial distribution pattern on the Eurasian continent strongly contrasts the situation in North Africa, where house sparrows and Spanish sparrows occur in close vicinity of phenotypically intermediate populations across a broad mosaic hybrid zone. In this study, we investigate patterns of divergence and admixture among the two parental species, stabilized and nonstabilized hybrid populations in Italy and Algeria based on a mitochondrial marker, a sex chromosomal marker, and 12 microsatellite loci. In Algeria, despite strong spatial and temporal separation of urban early‐breeding house sparrows and hybrids and rural late‐breeding Spanish sparrows, we found strong genetic admixture of mitochondrial and nuclear markers across all study populations and phenotypes. That pattern of admixture in the North African hybrid zone is strikingly different from i) the Iberian area of sympatry where we observed only weak asymmetrical introgression of Spanish sparrow nuclear alleles into local house sparrow populations and ii) the very homogenous Italian sparrow population where the mitogenome of one parent (P. domesticus) and the Z‐chromosomal marker of the other parent (P. hispaniolensis) are fixed. The North African sparrow hybrids provide a further example of enhanced hybridization along with recent urbanization and anthropogenic land‐use changes in a mosaic landscape.
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