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Spheniscidae

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Old Thursday 13th June 2013, 08:28   #1
Richard Klim
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Spheniscidae

Paterson, Wallis, Kennedy & Gray (in press). Behavioural evolution in penguins does not reflect phylogeny. Cladistics. [abstract]
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Old Thursday 14th November 2013, 08:25   #2
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Subramanian, S., G. Beans-Picón, S. K. Swaminathan, C. D. Millar & D. M. Lambert, 2013. Evidence for a recent origin of penguins. Biol. Lett. 9, 20130748.

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Old Friday 17th January 2014, 19:25   #3
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Christiaan Labuschagne, Antoinette Kotzé, J. Paul Grobler, Desiré L. Dalton. The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the African Penguin (Spheniscus demersus). Gene, Volume 534, Issue 1, 15 January 2014, Pages 113–118.
Abstract
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Old Friday 16th May 2014, 07:22   #4
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Michiko Murata, Masaru Murakami, 2014. Two Distinct mtDNA Lineages among Captive African Penguins in Japan. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, Vol. 76 No. 4 April p. 559-563.
Abstract:
The African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) is one of the world’s most endangered seabirds. In Japan, although the number of African penguins in captivity continues to increase, genetic data have not been collected for either wild or captive populations. To reveal genetic diversity and characterization in captive African penguins, we analyzed the nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from a sample of 236 African penguins. Analysis of 433 bp of the control region and 1,140 bp of cytochrome b sequences revealed the existence of two mtDNA clades. Control region haplotypes were much more divergent (d=3.39%) between the two clades than within each clade. The divergence of these clades may reflect differences at the subspecies or geographical population level in African penguins. These findings suggest that at least two distinct maternal lineages exist in the wild populations of the African penguin.

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Old Friday 16th May 2014, 20:04   #5
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Originally Posted by Peter Kovalik View Post
These findings suggest that at least two distinct maternal lineages exist in the wild populations of the African penguin.
Or alternatively, the history of the captive specimens analysed has included misidentified / mislabelled individuals of other related species?? Hardly a rare occurrence!
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Old Sunday 20th July 2014, 19:42   #6
Peter Kovalik
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Eudyptula

Stefanie Grosser (student), Bruce C. Robertson and Jon M. Waters. Two fairy penguins go into a bar. Abstracts from the 2014 New Zealand Bird Conference, Palmerston North.

Abstract:
Little blue penguins, Eudyptula minor, are the smallest extant penguin species and inhabit the coasts of New Zealand and southern Australia. Since the species was described by Forster in 1781 the taxonomy of the genus Eudyptula has been subject to extensive revision. The white-flippered penguin found on Banks Peninsula, Canterbury, was described as a second species, Eudyptula albosignata. Based on morphological measurements of penguins from around New Zealand Kinsky and Falla reclassified E. minor into a single species containing 6 subspecies. The first molecular analysis suggested that no subspecies should berecognized, whereas more recent studies on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) discovered a split of E. minor into two highly divergent groups, suggesting the existence of two species of little blue penguin, one Australian (including birds from New Zealand’s Otago region) and one New Zealand species. Although the biology and genetics of little blue penguins have been intensively studied for many years, no consensus exists today about the taxonomy of these birds. In this study we are using mtDNA and 20 nuclear microsatellites to examine the population
structure of little blue penguins across their whole distributional range. Our analyses indicate the presence of two major genetic lineages within the New Zealand region, with little hybridization suggesting the possibility of two distinct biological taxa.
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Old Wednesday 23rd July 2014, 13:28   #7
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Triche, Nina Elise, 2007. Systematics, biogeography, and evolutionary history of fossil and extant penguins (Aves: Sphenisciformes). Dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin.

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Old Thursday 2nd June 2016, 06:19   #8
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Eri Kikkawa, Tomi T. Tsuda, Kazuyoshi Hosomiti, Michio Tsuda, Hidetoshi Inoko, Akinori Kimura, Taeko K. Naruse, Koich Murata. Molecular Evolutionary Analysis of Seven Species of Penguins (Order: Sphenisciformes) in MHC Class I Gene. Major Histocompatibility Complex, Vol. 22 (2015) No. 3 p. 156-163.

abstract and pdf here
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Old Friday 14th October 2016, 05:24   #9
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Aptenodytes patagonicus

Clucas, Younger, Kao, Rogers, Handley, Miller, Jouventin, Nolan, Gharbi, Miller, Hart. 2016. Dispersal in the sub-Antarctic: king penguins show remarkably little population genetic differentiation across their range. BMC Evolutionary Biology 16:211.
[full paper]
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Old Wednesday 24th January 2018, 09:38   #10
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Ramos, González-Acuña, Loyola, Johnson, Parker, Massaro, Dantas, Miranda, Vianna. 2018. Landscape genomics: natural selection drives the evolution of mitogenome in penguins. BMC Genomics 19:53.
[whole paper]
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Old Thursday 21st June 2018, 12:55   #11
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Chinstrap Penguin

Mura-Jornet I., Pimentel C., Dantas G.P.M., Petry M.V., González-Acuña D., Barbosa A., Lowther A.D., Kovacs K.M., Poulin E. & Vianna J.A., 2018. Chinstrap Penguin population genetic structure: one or more populations along the Southern Ocean? BMC Evol. Biol. 18 (90): 1-12.

Unavailable at present but should be here soon:
https://bmcevolbiol.biomedcentral.co...862-018-1207-0
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Old Thursday 21st June 2018, 15:14   #12
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Unavailable at present but should be here soon:
https://bmcevolbiol.biomedcentral.co...862-018-1207-0
There now!
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Old Thursday 25th October 2018, 05:29   #13
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Cole, T.L., Rawlence, N.J., Dussex, N., Ellenberg, U., Houston, D.M., Mattern, T., Miskelly, C.M., Morrison, K.W., Paul Scofield, R., Tennyson, A.J.D., Thompson, D.R., Wood, J.R., Waters, J.M., Ancient DNA of crested penguins: Testing for temporal genetic shifts in the world’s most diverse penguin clade, Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution (2018), doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2018.10.025

Abstract:

Human impacts have substantially reduced avian biodiversity in many parts of the world, particularly on isolated islands of the Pacific Ocean. The New Zealand archipelago, including its five subantarctic island groups, holds breeding grounds for a third of the world’s penguin species, including several representatives of the diverse crested penguin genus Eudyptes. While this species-rich genus has been little studied genetically, recent population estimates indicate that several Eudyptes taxa are experiencing demographic declines. Although crested penguins are currently limited to southern regions of the New Zealand archipelago, prehistoric fossil and archaeological deposits suggest a wider distribution during prehistoric times, with breeding ranges perhaps extending to the North Island. Here, we analyse ancient, historic and modern DNA sequences to explore two hypotheses regarding the recent history of Eudyptes in New Zealand, testing for (1) human-driven extinction of Eudyptes lineages; and (2) reduced genetic diversity in surviving lineages. From 84 prehistoric bone samples, each tentatively identified as ‘Eudyptes spp.’, we genetically identified six prehistoric penguin taxa from mainland New Zealand, including one previously undescribed genetic lineage. Moreover, our Bayesian coalescent analyses indicated that, while the range of Fiordland crested penguin (E. pachyrhynchus) may have contracted markedly over the last millennium, genetic DNA diversity within this lineage has remained relatively constant. This result contrasts with human-driven biodiversity reductions previously detected in several New Zealand coastal vertebrate taxa.
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Old Sunday 24th February 2019, 08:51   #14
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Cole T.L., Ksepka D.T., Mitchell K.J., Tennyson A.J.D., Thomas D.B., Pan H., Zhang G., Rawlence N.J., Wood J.R., Bover P., Bouzat J.L., Cooper A., Fiddaman S., Hart T., Miller G., Ryan P.G., Shepherd L.D., Wilmshurst J.M. & Waters J.M., in press. Mitogenomes uncover extinct penguin taxa and reveal island formation as a key driver of speciation. Mol. Biol. Evol.

There
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Old Sunday 24th February 2019, 10:22   #15
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Originally Posted by Daniel Philippe View Post
Cole T.L., Ksepka D.T., Mitchell K.J., Tennyson A.J.D., Thomas D.B., Pan H., Zhang G., Rawlence N.J., Wood J.R., Bover P., Bouzat J.L., Cooper A., Fiddaman S., Hart T., Miller G., Ryan P.G., Shepherd L.D., Wilmshurst J.M. & Waters J.M., in press. Mitogenomes uncover extinct penguin taxa and reveal island formation as a key driver of speciation. Mol. Biol. Evol.

There
I already mentioned this paper on februari 7th 2019. See: https://www.birdforum.net/showthread.php?t=372871

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Old Thursday 18th July 2019, 06:37   #16
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Eudyptes chrysolophus, Eudyptes schlegeli

María José Frugone, María Eugenia López, Nicolás I. Segovia, Theresa L. Cole, Andrew Lother, Pierre Pistorius, Gisele P.M. Dantas, Maria Virginia Petri, Francesco Bonadonna, Phil Trathan, Andrea Polanowski, Barbara Wienecke, Ke Bi, Cynthia Y. Wang-Claypool, Jonathan M. Waters, Rauri C.K. Bowie, Elie Poulin, Juliana A. Vianna. More than the eye can see: genomic insights into the drivers of genetic differentiation in Royal/Macaroni penguins across the Southern Ocean. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. In Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available online 16 July 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2019.106563

Abstract:

The study of systematics in wide-ranging seabirds can be challenging due to the vast geographic scales involved, as well as the possible discordance between molecular, morphological and behavioral data. In the Southern Ocean, macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus) are distributed over a circumpolar range including populations in Antarctic and sub-Antarctic areas. Macquarie Island, in its relative isolation, is home to a closely related endemic taxon — the royal penguin (Eudyptes schlegeli), which is distinguishable from E. chrysolophus mainly by facial coloration. Although these sister taxa are widely accepted as representing distinct species based on morphological grounds, the extent of their genome-wide differentiation remains uncertain. In this study, we use genome-wide Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms to test genetic differentiation between these geographically isolated taxa and evaluate the main drivers of population structure among breeding colonies of macaroni/royal penguins. Genetic similarity observed between macaroni and royal penguins suggests they constitute a single evolutionary unit. Nevertheless, royal penguins exhibited a tendency to cluster only with macaroni individuals from Kerguelen Island, suggesting that dispersal occurs mainly between neighborhood colonies. A stepping stone model of differentiation of macaroni/royal populations was further supported by a strong pattern of isolation by distance detected across its whole distribution range, possibly driven by large geographic distances between colonies as well as natal philopatry. However, we also detected intraspecific genomic differentiation between Antarctic and sub-Antarctic populations of macaroni penguins, highlighting the role of environmental factors together with geographic distance in the processes of genetic differentiation between Antarctic and sub-Antarctic waters.
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