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Pycnonotidae

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Old Thursday 2nd February 2017, 13:06   #2
Peter Kovalik
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Shakya, S. B. and Sheldon, F. H. (2017), The phylogeny of the world's bulbuls (Pycnonotidae) inferred using a supermatrix approach. Ibis. Accepted Author Manuscript. doi:10.1111/ibi.12464

[abstract]
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Old Thursday 2nd February 2017, 13:12   #3
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Peter Kovalik View Post
Shakya, S. B. and Sheldon, F. H. (2017), The phylogeny of the world's bulbuls (Pycnonotidae) inferred using a supermatrix approach. Ibis. Accepted Author Manuscript. doi:10.1111/ibi.12464

[abstract]
Awesome
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Old Friday 3rd February 2017, 08:45   #4
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Excellent! This should be interesting
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Old Friday 3rd February 2017, 14:43   #5
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Peter Kovalik View Post
Shakya, S. B. and Sheldon, F. H. (2017), The phylogeny of the world's bulbuls (Pycnonotidae) inferred using a supermatrix approach. Ibis. Accepted Author Manuscript. doi:10.1111/ibi.12464

[abstract]
The fine detail some of the Philippine species looks highly dubious to me. The results show Thapsinillas as closer to Hypsipetes guimarasensis than H. philippinus is. This makes no sense morphologically or biogeographically. I also doubt that H. siquijorensis is closer to philippinus than guimarasensis is, though it is less impossible. I suspect there is a problem either with the sequence lengths or the statistics. It would have been nice to see a comparison of H. monticola, H. siquijorensis and H. cinereiceps, and also everetti, haynaldi and catarmanensis too.

Des
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Old Friday 3rd February 2017, 21:35   #6
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Originally Posted by dnsallen View Post
The fine detail some of the Philippine species looks highly dubious to me. The results show Thapsinillas as closer to Hypsipetes guimarasensis than H. philippinus is. This makes no sense morphologically or biogeographically. I also doubt that H. siquijorensis is closer to philippinus than guimarasensis is, though it is less impossible. I suspect there is a problem either with the sequence lengths or the statistics. It would have been nice to see a comparison of H. monticola, H. siquijorensis and H. cinereiceps, and also everetti, haynaldi and catarmanensis too.
Hypsipetes leucocephalus and Cerasophila thompsoni having near-identical sequences is another thing that may seem a bit improbable.
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Old Saturday 18th February 2017, 16:02   #7
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Iole

Sontaya Manawatthana, Parames Laosinchai, Nuttaphon Onparn, Warren Y. Brockelman, Philip D. Round; Phylogeography of bulbuls in the Genus Iole (Aves: Pycnonotidae). Biol J Linn Soc 2017 blw013. doi: 10.1093/biolinnean/blw013

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Southeast Asia is one of the most geologically dynamic regions of the world with great species diversity and high endemism. We studied the bulbuls of the south and southeast Asian genus Iole (Aves: Pycnonotidae) in order to analyse their evolutionary relationships and describe their patterns of diversification and delimit species boundaries. Our phylogeographic reconstruction, based on two mitochondrial and one nuclear markers, sampled from all 13 recognized Iole taxa, presently grouped as four species, revealing three primary lineages: (1) a Palawan lineage (2) a Sundaic group distributed in the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra and Borneo and (3) an Indochinese group distributed throughout continental Southeast Asia. Divergence time estimation suggested that the Palawan lineage diverged during the Miocene (around 9.7 Mya), a later split between the Sundaic and Indochinese lineages occurring around 7.2 Mya. The present classification of Iole based on morphology does not accurately reflect taxonomic relationships within the genus, in which we recognize five more putative species. An integrative approach that incorporates morphology and bioacoustics should further refine our understanding of species limits among Iole taxa.
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Old Thursday 6th April 2017, 06:30   #8
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Iole cacharensis, I. charlottae

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Sontaya Manawatthana, Parames Laosinchai, Nuttaphon Onparn, Warren Y. Brockelman, Philip D. Round; Phylogeography of bulbuls in the Genus Iole (Aves: Pycnonotidae). Biol J Linn Soc 2017 blw013. doi: 10.1093/biolinnean/blw013

Abstract



[pdf]
IOC Updates Diary Apr 5

Accept Cachar Bulbul and Charlotte’s Bulbul
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Old Sunday 30th April 2017, 07:08   #9
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Tif Update April 29, 2017

Bulbuls: Based on Manawatthana et al. (2017), Charlotte's Bulbul, Iole charlottae (inc. perplexa) has been split from Buff-vented Bulbul, Iole olivacea, and Cachar Bulbul, Iole cacharensis, has been split from Olive Bulbul, Iole virescens. Moreover, the subspecies lekhakuni and cinnamo[no]meoventris have been transferred from Gray-eyed Bulbul, Iole propinqua to Olive Bulbul, Iole virescens while myitkyinensis has moved the other way, from Olive Bulbul to Gray-eyed Bulbul.

The scientific name of Olive Bulbul has been corrected to Iole viridescens and the scientific name of Buff-vented Bulbul has been corrected to Iole crypta (see H&M-4).
[Pycnonotidae, Sylvioidea II, 3.03]


Also, based on Shakya & Sheldon, Arizelocichla and Chloricichla are not monophyletic. II would be tempted to go further by merging Arizelocichla and Chlorocichla into Baeopogon.

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Old Saturday 15th July 2017, 18:45   #10
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Phyllastrephus leucolepis

J. Martin Collinson, Martin Päckert, Yvonne Lawrie, Wulf Gatter, Till Töpfer, Ben Phalan & Lincoln Fishpool. Taxonomic status of the Liberian Greenbul Phyllastrephus leucolepis and the conservation importance of the Cavalla Forest, Liberia. Journal of Ornithology, First Online: 12 July 2017.

[pdf]


HBWAlive:

Quote:
Status as species accepted tentatively here, but relationship with P. icterinus, to which it is identical in appearance except for whitish subterminal spots on wing-coverts and remiges, puzzling; recent searches at type locality proved fruitless, and results of ongoing attempts to extract and compare genetic material awaited with interest.

Last edited by Peter Kovalik : Saturday 15th July 2017 at 18:50. Reason: HBWAlive
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Old Sunday 20th August 2017, 15:35   #11
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Little Greenbul

Zhen Y., Harrigan R.J., Ruegg K.C., Anderson E.C., Ng T.C., Lao S., Lohmueller K.E. & Smith T.B., in press. Genomic divergence across ecological gradients in the Central African rainforest songbird (Andropadus virens). Mol. Ecol.

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Old Sunday 22nd October 2017, 19:04   #12
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Phyllastrephus leucolepis

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J. Martin Collinson, Martin Päckert, Yvonne Lawrie, Wulf Gatter, Till Töpfer, Ben Phalan & Lincoln Fishpool. Taxonomic status of the Liberian Greenbul Phyllastrephus leucolepis and the conservation importance of the Cavalla Forest, Liberia. Journal of Ornithology, First Online: 12 July 2017.

[pdf]

HBWAlive:
The taxonomic status of Liberian Greenbul (Phyllastrephus leucolepis)

There has been a reassessment of the taxonomic status of Icterine Greenbul (Phyllastrephus icterinus) and Liberian Greenbul (Phyllastrephus leucolepis).

Phyllastrephus icterinus (HBW and BirdLife International 2017) was previously split as Icterine Greenbul P. icterinus and Liberian Greenbul P. leucolepis (del Hoyo and Collar 2016), but P. leucolepis is now considered a junior synonym of P. icterinus. This follows analysis by Collinson et al. (2017) who showed that leucolepis falls within the range of intraspecific genetic variation observed in icterinus and most likely represents a plumage variant of it.
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Old Tuesday 24th October 2017, 08:06   #13
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Phyllastrephus leucolepis

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Originally Posted by Peter Kovalik View Post
J. Martin Collinson, Martin Päckert, Yvonne Lawrie, Wulf Gatter, Till Töpfer, Ben Phalan & Lincoln Fishpool. Taxonomic status of the Liberian Greenbul Phyllastrephus leucolepis and the conservation importance of the Cavalla Forest, Liberia. Journal of Ornithology, First Online: 12 July 2017.
IOC Updates Diary Oct 23

Post proposed status of Liberian Greenbul as plumage variant of Icterine Greenbul on Updates/PL
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Old Monday 18th December 2017, 11:47   #14
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Jerry W Huntley Johanna A Harvey Marco Pavia Giovanni Boano Gary Voelker, 2017. The systematics and biogeography of the Bearded Greenbuls (Aves: Criniger) reveals the impact of Plio-Pleistocene forest fragmentation on Afro-tropical avian diversity

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Abstract
The biogeographical history of Afro-tropical lowland forests during the Plio-Pleistocene is characterized by pervasive fragmentation-coalescence cycling due to global climatic oscillations. Vicariance scenarios driven by forest fragmentation have long been hypothesized as major mechanisms for the creation and maintenance of Afro-tropical avian diversity. However, the timing and centre of diversification events remains unclear. We undertook the first molecular phylogenetic and biogeographic investigation of the avian genus Criniger, a group of understory birds endemic to the lowland forests of West and Central Africa. Utilizing DNA from 43 specimens and a combination of molecular and biogeographic methods, we constructed time-calibrated phylogenies and ancestral area estimations. We estimated a widespread origin for the genus, with a basal divergence dating to the late Miocene. All other speciation events were dated to the Pliocene. However, we recovered substantial geographic structuring of genetic diversity, dating to the Pleistocene, within both Western and Central Africa for three species. The biogeographic patterns observed in the genus Criniger are likely the result of allopatric diversification driven by forest fragmentation during the Plio-Pleistocene. The results of this study indicate that Afro-tropical forests harbour substantially higher levels of cryptic diversity and greater genetic complexity than previously hypothesized.
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Old Wednesday 27th December 2017, 06:51   #15
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Phyllastrephus leucolepis

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IOC Updates Diary Oct 23

Post proposed status of Liberian Greenbul as plumage variant of Icterine Greenbul on Updates/PL
IOC Updates Diary Dec 21

Lump (variant plumage) Liberian Greenbul with Icterine Greenbul
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Old Thursday 25th January 2018, 18:21   #16
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Nok hualon

Fuchs, J., Pasquet, E., Stuart, B. L., Woxvold, I. A., Duckworth, J. W. and Bowie, R. C.K. (), Phylogenetic affinities of the enigmatic Bare-faced Bulbul Pycnonotus hualon with description of a new genus. Ibis. Accepted Author Manuscript. doi:10.1111/ibi.12580

Abstract:

Quote:
The recently described Bare-faced Bulbul Pycnonotus hualon from Lao PDR has a very distinct morphology and habitat (karsts). Mitochondrial and nuclear data from the type material demonstrated that P. hualon is sister to members of the genus Spizixos. To highlight its unique morphology and phylogenetic distinctiveness, we describe a new monotypic genus for the Bare-faced Bulbul.

The Bare-faced Bulbul Pycnonotus hualon Woxvold, Duckworth & Timmins, 2009, was first collected from the small limestone karst outcrop of Pha Lom (16°58′13″N, 105°48′48″E), north-east Savannakhet Province, Lao PDR, in late 2008, following a 1995 sighting of strange bald-looking bulbuls about 185 km away, above the Hinboun plain at the northern end of the Khammouan limestone massif (18°04′N, 104°31′E). As of 2017, the species remains known only from the karst landforms of Lao PDR between the Pha Lom and above the Hinboun plain. This discovery forms part of a sustained pulse of discoveries of new bird and mammal species in and around the Annamite Mountains of Lao PDR and Vietnam, mostly associated with two distinct habitat types, karst limestone and wet evergreen forest. Several of the newly discovered species are phylogenetically highly distinct. These include a forest bovid (Saola Pseudoryx nghetinhensis Vu, Pham, Nguyen, Do, Arctander & MacKinnon, 1993; Vu et al. 1993); the first representative of Caudata for Lao PDR (Lao Warty Newt Laotriton laoensis (Stuart & Papenfuss, 2002); Stuart & Papenfuss 2002); and a living member of the Diatomyidae (Kha-nyou Laonastes aenigmamus Jenkins, Kilpatrick, Robinson & Timmins, 2005; Jenkins et al. 2005), a lineage of rodent formerly presumed to have been extinct for the past 11 million years (Dawson et al. 2006). Here we investigated the phylogenetic relationships of the Bare-faced Bulbul (Fig. 1).
Quote:
Nok, gen. nov.

Type species: Pycnonotus hualon Woxvold, Duckworth and Timmins, 2009 by original description.

Etymology: Nok means bird in Lao and is used to highlight the range-restricted distribution of the species. Nouns in the Lao language lack gender. Nok is proposed here as a masculine noun.
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Old Friday 16th March 2018, 11:02   #17
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Kenyan greenbuls

De Santis V., Mwinami T., Chesire D., Musina J., Zaccara S., Kioko E., Owino J.J., Oduma J.A., Ayiemba W., Harper D.M. & Crosa G., in press. Molecular pilot study on peripheral populations of Kenyan greenbul in an afromontane fragmented forest. Afr. J. Ecol.

Abstract
We provide a molecular study on peripheral populations of three closely related species of African forest-dependent greenbuls: the generalist Eurillas latirostris and the specialists Phyllastrephus cabanisi and Arizelocichla nigriceps. These species co-occur within their range limits in the Kenyan Afromontane forest, Cherangani Hills. This forest has experienced drastic deforestation, which began about 50 years ago, that is causing habitat fragmentation. The aims of this study, using the analyses of molecular tools, are twofold: (i) to provide evidence that functional traits (i.e., ecological attributes) may shape different genetic structure in peripheral populations and (ii) to identify the possible effects of forest fragmentation. Blood and plucked feathers were sampled from a total of 124 birds analysed using two molecular approaches: (i) sequencing of cytochrome b mtDNA and (ii) genotyping nuclear DNA at eight microsatellite loci. Molecular diversity indices, minimum spanning network and mismatch distribution analysis of mtDNA results indicated that the peripheral populations showed different demographic trends: a highly variable and bimodal pattern in forest specialist P. cabanisi, a less variable and unimodal pattern in forest generalist E. latirostris and in the montane specialist A. nigriceps. Although this is a pilot study on the Cherangani forest fragmentation, the nuclear results may not exclude the hypothesis of reduced connectivity in all forest-dependent greenbuls.
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Old Monday 16th April 2018, 19:15   #18
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Bare-faced Bulbul

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Fuchs, J., Pasquet, E., Stuart, B. L., Woxvold, I. A., Duckworth, J. W. and Bowie, R. C.K. (), Phylogenetic affinities of the enigmatic Bare-faced Bulbul Pycnonotus hualon with description of a new genus. Ibis. Accepted Author Manuscript. doi:10.1111/ibi.12580

Abstract:
IOC Updates Diary Apr 15

Move Bare-faced Bulbul from Pycnonotus to new genus Nok
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Old Friday 22nd June 2018, 13:42   #19
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Giorgio Aimassi & Edward C. Dickinson. Hemixus sumatranus Wardlaw Ramsay, 1882, and Hemixus sumatranus Salvadori, 1888. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 138(2):135-139. 2018.

Abstract:

Eight specimens collected in 1878 by the Italian explorer Odoardo Beccari have provided one or more type specimens for two seemingly identical names given to the Sunda Bulbul of Sumatra, now treated as a subspecies of Ixos virescens or perhaps a full species. These names are Hemixus sumatranus Wardlaw Ramsay, 1882, and Hemixus sumatranus Salvadori, 1888. The International code of zoological nomenclature is not clearly explicit on the treatment of a name that when introduced was simultaneously a junior homonym and an objective junior synonym. While both names are available, the junior one is invalid because of its homonymy. Because both names are available, both have type material and this is not identical. Here we clarify the situation and the type material applicable.

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Old Sunday 5th August 2018, 15:53   #20
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The valid name of Pycnonotus atriceps -- or: AOU vs. ICZN

Trying to understand why we currently keep calling the Black-headed Bulbul 'atriceps' instead of 'melanocephalus'...
- Lanius melanocephalos Gmelin 1788:309 [OD]
- Turdus atriceps Temminck 1822 [OD]
The first and oldest of these two names was in universal use until Oberholser in 1917 [here] (f.n. 4) declared it preoccupied due to a primary homonymy with:
- Lanius collurio, var. ε melanocephalus Gmelin 1788:301 [OD]
...and replaced it with atriceps.

Oberholser 1917 was, I think, applying the rules of the AOU Code of Nomenclature of 1908 (which he contributed to edit). (While we, in principle, should be applying the rules of the 4th edition of the ICZN of 1999. Or...?)



1a) AOU 1908, Canon XXX, (b), stated:
Quote:
Generic and specific names, spelled alike, or differing in spelling only as indicated below, are to be considered identical (respecting 'emendations,' see Canon XXXI):
[...]
(b) Whether the ending is masculine, feminine, or neuter, or in Greek or Latin form; e. g., Otostomus, Otostoma, and Otostomum; Nettion and Nettium.
Thus, back then and there, melanocephalus (Latin ending) and melanocephalos (same word, Greek ending) were indeed to be treated as identical.

1b) ICZN 1999, Article 57.6, says:
Quote:
57.6. One-letter difference. Except as specified in Article 58, a one-letter difference between species-group names combined with the same generic name is sufficient to prevent homonymy.
Article 58 specifies:
Quote:
Article 58. Variant spellings of species-group names deemed to be identical. Species-group names established for different nominal taxa that differ in spelling only in any of the following respects and that are of the same derivation and meaning are deemed to be homonyms when the nominal taxa they denote are included in the same genus or collective group:
58.1. use of ae, oe or e (e.g. caeruleus, coeruleus, ceruleus);
58.2. use of ei, i or y (e.g. cheiropus, chiropus, chyropus);
58.3. use of i or j for the same Latin letter (e.g. iavanus, javanus; maior, major);
58.4. use of u or v for the same Latin letter (e.g. neura, nevra; miluina, milvina);
58.5. use of c or k for the same letter (e.g. microdon, mikrodon);
58.6. aspiration or non-aspiration of a consonant (e.g. oxyrhynchus, oxyrynchus);
58.7. use of a single or double consonant (e.g. litoralis, littoralis);
58.8. presence or absence of c before t (e.g. auctumnalis, autumnalis);
58.9. use of f or ph (e.g. sulfureus, sulphureus);
58.10. use of ch or c (e.g. chloropterus, cloropterus);
58.11. use of th or t (e.g. thiara, tiara; clathratus, clatratus);
58.12. use of different connecting vowels in compound words (e.g. nigricinctus, nigrocinctus);
58.13. transcription of the semivowel i as y, ei, ej or ij (e.g. guianensis, guyanensis);
58.14. use of -i or -ii, -ae or -iae, -orum or -iorum, -arum or -iarum as the ending in a genitive based on the name of a person or persons, or a place, host or other entity associated with the taxon, or between the elements of a compound species-group name (e.g. smithi, smithii; patchae, patchiae; fasciventris, fasciiventris);
58.15. presence or absence of -i before a suffix or termination (e.g. timorensis, timoriensis; comstockana, comstockiana).
melanocephalos and melanocephalus differ by the use of o and u, respectively, as their penultimate letter; this type of difference is not listed in Article 58, thus is sufficient to prevent homonymy as per Article 57.6. If the names are not homonyms under the present Code, there is no way that one can preoccupy the other.



2a) AOU 1908, Canon XVII, stated:
Quote:
Canon XVII. [Of names published simultaneously in the same book, that shall be taken which stands first in the book, regardless of other considerations. [...]]
Thus, back then and there, a name appearing on p. 301 of a book was indeed to be given precedence over a name appearing on p. 309.

2b) ICZN 1999, Article 24, says:
Quote:
Article 24. Precedence between simultaneously published names, spellings or acts.
24.1. Automatic determination of precedence of names.
When homonyms or synonyms are established simultaneously, but proposed at different ranks, in the family group, genus group or species group the name proposed at higher rank takes precedence [Arts. 55.5, 56.3, 57.7].
[...]
24.2. Determination by the First Reviser.
24.2.1. Statement of the Principle of the First Reviser. When the precedence between names or nomenclatural acts cannot be objectively determined, the precedence is fixed by the action of the first author citing in a published work those names or acts and selecting from them; this author is termed the "First Reviser".
The two names were published simultaneously but at different ranks. Should they be homonyms (they are not), Art. 24.1 would apply (NB: excluding Art. 24.2; no First Reviser act is possible): it is the name proposed for a full species (i.e., Lanius melanocephalos) that would automatically take precedence over the name proposed for a variety (Lanius collurio, var. ε melanocephalus). Not the opposite, and irrespective of where they appear in the book.

Last edited by l_raty : Sunday 5th August 2018 at 16:12.
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Old Monday 6th August 2018, 00:05   #21
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I am not sure I follow all the arguments of this. But logically, reading the list attributed to article 58, I would as a complete nob have assumed that the omission of spelling differences between words considered Latin and Greek was an unintended omission from the list. That obviously given the rest of the post might have no bearing to whether the word was preoccupied.

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Old Saturday 16th March 2019, 20:44   #22
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Pycnonotus pseudosimplex, sp. nov.

Subir B. Shakya, Haw Chuan Lim, Robert G. Moyle, Mustafa Abdul Rahman, Maklarin Lakim, Frederick H. Sheldon. A cryptic new species of bulbul from Borneo. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 139(1):46-55 (2019). https://doi.org/10.25226/bboc.v139i1.2019.a3

Abstract:

Cream-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus simplex of Borneo was previously considered to be polymorphic in iris colour, having either red or white (creamy-yellow) irides. Mitochondrial DNA sequence comparisons, however, indicate that white- and red-eyed Bornean individuals are not closely related to one another. Instead, white-eyed birds are sister to Ashy-fronted Bulbul P. cinereifrons of Palawan Island, in the south-west Philippines, and red-eyed birds are sister to white-eyed P. simplex of the Thai-Malay Peninsula. Consequently, we elect to treat the white-eyed Bornean population as a distinct, previously overlooked species. In respect to plumage, white- and red-eyed individuals are almost identical, varying only slightly in the amount of yellow coloration in their feathers. The two taxa are sympatric at some localities, but white-eyed individuals are rarer and more consistently associated with mature forest than red-eyed birds.

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Pycnonotus pseudosimplex, sp. nov.
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Old Saturday 16th March 2019, 21:39   #23
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I just noticed that Pycnonotus erythrophthalmos is nested within this clade. I thought it was close to Ixidia squamata and cyaniventris

Suggested French name : Bulbul de Sarawak

Last edited by LeNomenclatoriste : Sunday 17th March 2019 at 06:52.
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Old Sunday 17th March 2019, 16:51   #24
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Pycnonotus pseudosimplex

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Subir B. Shakya, Haw Chuan Lim, Robert G. Moyle, Mustafa Abdul Rahman, Maklarin Lakim, Frederick H. Sheldon. A cryptic new species of bulbul from Borneo. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 139(1):46-55 (2019). https://doi.org/10.25226/bboc.v139i1.2019.a3

Abstract:
IOC Updates Diary

Mar 17 Post proposed new species Cream-eyed Bulbul on Updates/PS
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Old Tuesday 16th April 2019, 16:09   #25
LeNomenclatoriste
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Is there a paper stating that Bonapartia Boettikofer, 1896 is a Nomen Oblitum and Bonapartia Goode & Bean, 1896 a Nomen Protectum?
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