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10 Must Use Bird Photography Camera Settings for Beginners

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Old Friday 28th December 2018, 13:21   #1
Chosun Juan
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Lightbulb 10 Must-Use Bird Photography Camera Settings for Beginners

I came across this article by Prathap DK and thought it was a fairly straightforward KISS method for beginners to get going.

https://digital-photography-school.c...DRtYA0WTYhDlJM

I suppose it resonated because a lot of it is the way I shoot. The only real difference is that I usually have a preference for spot metering, or centre weighted, rather than full evaluative or 3D matrix ..... maybe this just means I need to get closer to my subjects! :)

1. Shoot in RAW format
2. Use AWB (Auto White Balance)
3. Use Semi-Automatic modes: (A)perture priority, or (S)hutter priority
4. Shoot in Auto ISO
5. Use the Auto ISO combined with a minimum shutter speed
6. Use Evaluative/ Matrix metering mode
7. The Histogram is your best friend
8. Enable the Highlight Indicator (Blinkies)
9. Use Exposure Compensation (+/- Ev) to Tweak the Exposure
10. Learn to use AE/AF Lock or the AF-ON Button

The only thing I really wish for with my camera (apart from a 600mm f4 Diffractive Optics lens! :) is an exposure histogram in the viewfinder so that I could cut down on the chimping ..... [who knows - perhaps there is a setting or custom function on the D7200 that allows this that I just haven't discovered yet ?? anybody ?]

I'm very interested to hear what more experienced shooters think of these 10 recommendations.

As far as exposures go, I generally try and get the target correct - sometimes resulting in a blown sky, or a completely dark background when you run out of DR (both of which I think can look dramatic with a high contrast subject). Sometimes if there is a mutlicoloured frame (storms and/or sunsets, certain landscapes, etc) I will try and expose for the feature part of the frame and then bracket around that to stretch the correctly exposed coverage.

When using the exposure compensation dial, I have to have been shooting consistently for a while to know intuitively which direction does what - otherwise there's a fair bit of back and forth involved in that too, and of course the obligatory chimping to see where the limits are unless I'm in good practice and feeling confident.

Also, what are you using as your minimum shutter speed for (i) static subjects, (ii) BIF and other moving targets. (as I'm not using a D5 or even D500, I tend to use single centre point focus finding that the 3D AF of the D7200 can't keep up with erratic speedsters - at least in my hands. Is there a way of expanding this centre spot without going to d-9 and above given that I am usually at f6.3-f8 ?)




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Last edited by Chosun Juan : Friday 28th December 2018 at 13:57. Reason: The 10 commandments ! :)
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Old Friday 28th December 2018, 14:47   #2
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Seems like good general tips for action photography. I use most or all of them.

Perhaps the tricky part in bird photography is AF setup and tuning.
To be able to quickly switch between different AF-modes (single point, group-AF etc.) for different situations can be quite useful.

Also tuning the AF-behaviour might be important (lock-on, release time etc.).

Sometimes I even use manual focus and pre-focus the shot as not even the best AF-system in the world can focus in some situations. Close shots of small&fast birds is one example.

The shutter speeds I use depends on how fast but also how far away the bird is (i.e. the "angular velocity" I guess).
At a longer distance 1/250 s might be enough, close up 1/2000 s or even shorter might be needed.
1/500 s might be a good compromise but don't expect every moving bird to be pin-sharp.
Since I don't want to crank up the ISO to much I have a limit set on max ISO, usually 1600 or 3200.

Generally I try to shoot lenses at their maximum aperture or maximum 0.5-1 stop below.
You don't buy an expensive lens to shoot it stopped down, that would be throwing money and bokeh away.
For some shots, stopping down is needed though for appropriate DOF.

I do careful AF-fine tune with all lenses as I use a DSLR.
My experience is that AF-fine tune is mandatory for getting perfectly sharp shots.

Last edited by Vespobuteo : Friday 28th December 2018 at 15:26.
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Old Friday 28th December 2018, 16:36   #3
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Vespobuteo View Post
Seems like good general tips for action photography. I use most or all of them.

Perhaps the tricky part in bird photography is AF setup and tuning.
To be able to quickly switch between different AF-modes (single point, group-AF etc.) for different situations can be quite useful.

Also tuning the AF-behaviour might be important (lock-on, release time etc.).

Sometimes I even use manual focus and pre-focus the shot as not even the best AF-system in the world can focus in some situations. Close shots of small&fast birds is one example.

The shutter speeds I use depends on how fast but also how far away the bird is (i.e. the "angular velocity" I guess).
At a longer distance 1/250 s might be enough, close up 1/2000 s or even shorter might be needed.
1/500 s might be a good compromise but don't expect every moving bird to be pin-sharp.
Since I don't want to crank up the ISO to much I have a limit set on max ISO, usually 1600 or 3200.

Generally I try to shoot lenses at their maximum aperture or maximum 0.5-1 stop below.
You don't buy an expensive lens to shoot it stopped down, that would be throwing money and bokeh away.
For some shots, stopping down is needed though for appropriate DOF.

I do careful AF-fine tune with all lenses as I use a DSLR.
My experience is that AF-fine tune is mandatory for getting perfectly sharp shots.
Yes, good tips also
I do very much the same, same, same.
With the Tammy 150-600 G2 I often use the full time manual engage to preset a focus distance (roughly). Stopping down 0.5 - 1 stop (and backing off 50mm from the max focal length) is necessary to maximize IQ. I try and aim for 1/2000th sec and less than ISO 1600.

The good thing with the Nikon D7200 is that the spot exposure follows the single AF point around when you move it off centre. Even mostly shooting in 1.3 crop mode (so around 1100mm eq) my subjects are often smallish in the frame hence my preference for spot metering.



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Old Friday 28th December 2018, 17:17   #4
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Cameras wouldn't allow all sorts of settings if they weren't useful.
That said I was recommended to use manual for everything bar WB from the moment I first got a DSLR so I always had control on depth of field and movement blur. In recent years though I have started to use auto ISO as you can now take very acceptable shots at huge ISO's compared to say just 10 years ago provided you have a recent model camera capable of doing so.That said if I see the auto iso is pushing further up the scale than I really want then I will try and pull back on shutter speed and/or aperture if there is room to do so. That's where manual gives you the advantage of choice at what to sacrifice at the twist of two dials.
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Old Friday 28th December 2018, 17:46   #5
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I moved to manual quite early on for the simple reason that exposure compensation (be it ISO, S/S or Aperture) is not immediately on a dial - it's always another button push away and I found it frustratingly slow.

Of course if anyone knows a way to make it so on a 1D4 or a 5D3 please post up!
I do encounter plenty of situations of widely fluctuating lighting conditions, where I know a semi-automatic mode would score me higher.

Mostly good advice though
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Old Friday 28th December 2018, 18:16   #6
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Keebs View Post
I moved to manual quite early on for the simple reason that exposure compensation (be it ISO, S/S or Aperture) is not immediately on a dial - it's always another button push away and I found it frustratingly slow.

Of course if anyone knows a way to make it so on a 1D4 or a 5D3 please post up!
I do encounter plenty of situations of widely fluctuating lighting conditions, where I know a semi-automatic mode would score me higher.

Mostly good advice though
I can't speak for Canon, but my D7200 has a +/- button just back from the shutter button (which also houses the On/Off ring around it) which works in concert with the thumb wheel. If I'm in reasonably practiced form then it's purely a feel process which doesn't necessitate taking the eye from the viewfinder.

Constantly fine tuning the +/- exposure compensation (for birds circling into and away from the sun for example, shade and light) is something I find that I constantly need to do ..... especially on black and white birds.

As Dave said, I keep an eye on the ISO and S/S to try and get better IQ as the light allows, but usually I'm working with set apertures (which I adjust within a narrow range to suit the situation and the Tammy's quirks - I find that I can open her up a bit as the distances really decrease). As the D7200 has a fairly linear ISO/DR response, I often don't really care too much (within an operating range) what the exact ISO value will be - it's just one less thing to worry about in the heat of the action.

One thing I will do is slightly vary the S/S in the Auto ISO setup at the beginning of the session depending on the light for the day. ie. if it's a bit dull I will drop the S/S from 1/2000th to 1/1600th (or slightly less), and I also might bump the max ISO setting up from 1600 to 3200. If it brightens up in the middle of the day then I just change back to better settings. If things deteriorate to needing more than ISO 3200 then I just go home! (unless it's a once in a lifetime rarity).

By far my biggest bug bear is not having a histogram or even 'blinkies' in the viewfinder, so I need constant chimping to check. Just as well I'm not OCD - you could drive yourself mad ! I will be sooooo happy when hybrid OVF'S make their way into DSLR's (or it is achieved by some other method) and I can view histograms/blinkies without taking my eye from the viewfinder ...... :)




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Old Friday 28th December 2018, 19:41   #7
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Keebs View Post
I moved to manual quite early on for the simple reason that exposure compensation (be it ISO, S/S or Aperture) is not immediately on a dial - it's always another button push away and I found it frustratingly slow.

Of course if anyone knows a way to make it so on a 1D4 or a 5D3 please post up!
I do encounter plenty of situations of widely fluctuating lighting conditions, where I know a semi-automatic mode would score me higher.

Mostly good advice though
I don't think you can use exposure compensation in manual mode on either of those two camera bodies, you can on the later models though.
You could try using spot metering in some situations though, can be very effective.
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Old Friday 28th December 2018, 19:53   #8
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Hiya Dave - both your cast-offs still performing well

I meant in Av mode - which would me more useful to me in some situations.
I've always found it too fiddly to get to the exposure compensation though.
If it could be stored on the top dial as a preference I would be very happy.
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Old Friday 28th December 2018, 20:03   #9
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Hiya Dave - both your cast-offs still performing well

I meant in Av mode - which would me more useful to me in some situations.
I've always found it too fiddly to get to the exposure compensation though.
If it could be stored on the top dial as a preference I would be very happy.
That's good to know that they are still going strong!
I can't remember the menu on the 1D4, the 5D3 though has similar menus set up as the 7D2,5D4 and 1DX's.
For the 5D3 you can add various functions to show in boxes on the rear screen including, I think,EV +/- ,. Hit the "Q" button so it illuminates and toggle down to the box you want to change, in this case the EV. I think it can then be changed with one of the dials. This only applies in AV mode not manual.
I'm writing this from memory so I might not be correct in my assumptions.
Hope it works!
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Old Friday 28th December 2018, 20:31   #10
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That's the thing Dave - you can only access EC by a button push first - then it's on a dial.

I found that trying to hit whatever button and then adjust the EC was too fiddly and taking me too long.

It was actually quicker, most times, to work in manual and adjust exposure with the dial only, i.e. adjusting shutter speed.
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Old Saturday 29th December 2018, 01:30   #11
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I also shoot with a D7200 and G1 150-600. I shoot in Shutter priority most of the time. I tried auto-ISO but I get better results setting it myself. I usually walk around at s/s 1000, but have managed decent shots down to 400 hand held. ISO depends on the light of course. Back-button focus is the main thing I would add to the list. It just makes everything easier. I also use the exposure +/- constantly.
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Old Saturday 29th December 2018, 02:04   #12
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This is the exposure +/- button/ dial (main) set up on the D7200. It makes it very easy just to slightly move the tips of your forefinger and thumb to change exposure without altering your grip or removing the eye from the viewfinder (as the exposure compensation is displayed numerically, eg. -1.3 or whatever etc along with other info in the bottom border of the viewfinder)
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I like the ergonomics of the Nikon - very natural feeling ..... just needs that histogram or something in the viewfinder! :)




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Old Saturday 29th December 2018, 03:23   #13
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I also shoot with a D7200 and G1 150-600. I shoot in Shutter priority most of the time. I tried auto-ISO but I get better results setting it myself. I usually walk around at s/s 1000, but have managed decent shots down to 400 hand held. ISO depends on the light of course. Back-button focus is the main thing I would add to the list. It just makes everything easier. I also use the exposure +/- constantly.
That's actually no.10 on his list.

Something I'm not doing full time, since I like to use the AE-L/AF-L button for its intended purpose ...... perhaps there are other ways?
I really should get into the back button focusing routine .....




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Old Saturday 29th December 2018, 03:40   #14
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Chosun Juan View Post
That's actually no.10 on his list.

Something I'm not doing full time, since I like to use the AE-L/AF-L button for its intended purpose ...... perhaps there are other ways?
I really should get into the back button focusing routine .....




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Ah I didn't read it that way. I thought it was referring to using it as intended.
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Old Saturday 29th December 2018, 05:05   #15
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I'd also suggest that you reconsider that 3200 ceiling. It's a matter of taste of course but I've gotten good shots well above that. Here's an example. Not great but a worthwhile photo for me. It was a very dark day and I was swarmed by several hundred common redpolls. This was taken at ISO 10000. I don't do much PP but this could probably be cleaned up nicely.
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Old Saturday 29th December 2018, 09:28   #16
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I'd be long home by ISO 10,000 ! The Thornbill in my gallery was ISO 3200 and that is reasonable - but I was pretty close and I think that makes all the difference. Beyond that detail gets mushy on the APS-C sensor.

Similarly, I've had some reasonable shots as low as 1/400th of a second - such as the Eastern Yellow Robin in my gallery (that speed seems somewhat of a sweet spot), but even then it's too hit and miss for my liking, and either side of that the results aren't too flash. Better consistency starts at 1/1200th sec which helps (somewhat) freeze the constant jinky motion of the little geewhizzits ....... but really I aim for 1/2000th sec light permitting, and almost always handheld. A tripod would pull those shutter speeds down a ways - but then you often risk 2 headed birds! :)




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Old Friday 25th January 2019, 16:37   #17
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Given that this is advice for beginners, the only thing I might disagree with a bit would be the first point, to shoot in RAW. If we're talking about beginning BIRD photographers, who have experience with photography and have proper RAW editing software and knowledge, then OK - but if beginning in photography in general and not familiar with RAW processing or with good RAW software, then this could be a very difficult learning curve to throw on top of trying to learn camera basics, control layout, exposure, and framing/finding birds and wildlife. I'd recommend beginners consider using JPG instead to take one more thing off their plate until they learn more about photography and birding.

On the other points, I think setting an Auto ISO or ISO cap is very camera-dependent, as well as being dependent on how well you expose your shots. Newer cameras are often much more capable at high ISOs than cameras even 5 years ago, and sensor-sizes each step up the game as far as noise control and detail and dynamic range retention at high ISO levels. I am very comfortable on my current camera shooting at ISO 6,400, and can go to ISO 12,800 without too much concern if I nail the exposure. I wouldn't have done that on my cameras 5-8 years ago, where ISO 3,200 was the reasonable comfort level. And the big thing with ISO noise is that ugly and destructive noise lives in shadows - underexpose a shot at a high ISO, you'll see more noise and lose more details in those shadow areas when trying to recover. Properly expose a shot and there's significantly less noise, as well as less detail loss in the darker areas as they don't dip down too low where the dynamic range limitations of the high ISO setting will end up losing detail to the camera's noise reduction or through too much noise when trying to pull up the shadows.

I admit too - I find center-weighted metering better, at least on my cameras, than matrix.

Still, overall good advice.
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Old Monday 11th February 2019, 06:47   #18
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Justin, good points

Jpeg is a good way to jump out of the box and nail down a few basics. I think it pays to get quickly up to speed with RAW and a simplified work flow processing - that tends to put some limits on the trigger finger!

Also good advice that the well performing / usuable ISO ranges are sensor size dependent, as well as the sophistication of the design.




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Old Monday 11th February 2019, 07:17   #19
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Question Manual Focus Question .... ??

A few people have brought up that they prefer to shoot in full manual ....... I'm just wondering how they go about it ?

For reference, I probably started out shooting in full manual with my first hand me down camera, and the first 2nd hand camera rig I purchased - the old film era, Zenit(h) - I can't remember, it was the Russian one, rudimentary 35mm, 50mm, and about 180mm I think telephoto; and the Minolta 700Si with 28-200mm and 200-400mm and 2TC Tamrons.

The Zenit(h) had this nifty mechanical exposure meter needle window where you would try and line it up with an eyelet - one side would be underexposed, spot on would be correct exposure (for what you were pointed at), and the other side of it would be overexposed. I cut my teeth on this pre-teens and loved the connection to the shot making process (along with watching the mechanical aperture leaves opening and closing).

The Minolta also gives fond memories for it's battery conserving eyestart AF, and the 'blinkies' (shutter speeds or aperture) displayed in the viewfinder when the exposure was off.

A major bugbear I have with the modern digital camera is no exposure histogram displayed in the viewfinder (at least in the ones I use) ..... necessitating constant 'chimping' to work out exactly where the exposures are at.

My question to those modern manual shooters is - how do you get the exposure correct? (given that it is tied to shutter speed and aperture, and also exposure compensation) what controls are used? and what is the process of shooting in practice? is it a chimpathon??

Are there any advantages over the method described in this thread?
(Both in terms of control and method of shooting [steps required] in practice /heat of the moment) ?





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Old Monday 11th February 2019, 10:05   #20
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Chosun Juan View Post
A few people have brought up that they prefer to shoot in full manual ....... I'm just wondering how they go about it ?

For reference, I probably started out shooting in full manual with my first hand me down camera, and the first 2nd hand camera rig I purchased - the old film era, Zenit(h) - I can't remember, it was the Russian one, rudimentary 35mm, 50mm, and about 180mm I think telephoto; and the Minolta 700Si with 28-200mm and 200-400mm and 2TC Tamrons.

The Zenit(h) had this nifty mechanical exposure meter needle window where you would try and line it up with an eyelet - one side would be underexposed, spot on would be correct exposure (for what you were pointed at), and the other side of it would be overexposed. I cut my teeth on this pre-teens and loved the connection to the shot making process (along with watching the mechanical aperture leaves opening and closing).

The Minolta also gives fond memories for it's battery conserving eyestart AF, and the 'blinkies' (shutter speeds or aperture) displayed in the viewfinder when the exposure was off.

A major bugbear I have with the modern digital camera is no exposure histogram displayed in the viewfinder (at least in the ones I use) ..... necessitating constant 'chimping' to work out exactly where the exposures are at.

My question to those modern manual shooters is - how do you get the exposure correct? (given that it is tied to shutter speed and aperture, and also exposure compensation) what controls are used? and what is the process of shooting in practice? is it a chimpathon??

Are there any advantages over the method described in this thread?
(Both in terms of control and method of shooting [steps required] in practice /heat of the moment) ?

Chosun
You can use Auto-ISO in manual mode.

For example, if you quickly changing from shooting a stationary subject to a moving one, you only need to change shutter speed. The exposure will be adjusted by auto-ISO. If you (also) want to change f-stop for more DOF it works in the same way. Set suitable limit for max ISO in auto-iso menu. Steve Perry has a good video on it here:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mFLxYMLsv8I

Last edited by Vespobuteo : Tuesday 12th February 2019 at 09:28.
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