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Apodium Rafinesque 1814 (1 Viewer)


laurent raty
This one is in the Key... (*) But surely this is not a bird...?

(*) As well as in many other places, including Nom. Zoologicus, where it is both a bird and a beetle (it is neither!), and the Richmond Index (but see the crossed-out note on this particular card).

Name: Apodium
Author: Rafinesque
Date: 1814
OD ref: Rafinesque-Schmaltz CS. 1814. Principes fondamentaux de somiologie ou les lois de la nomenclature de de la classification de l'empire organique ou des animaux et des végétaux contenant les règles essentielles de l'art de leur imposer des noms immuables et de les classer méthodiquement. Franc. Abate, Palerme.
Page: 29
Link: https://books.google.com/books?id=Op85AAAAcAAJ&pg=PA29
OINS: n/a
Type: Monoculus apus Linnaeus 1758
Syn.? in use
Fixation by: emendation
Fixation ref: see original name
Page: see original name
Link: see original name
OD of type ref: Linnaeus C. 1758. Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Laurentius Salvius, Stockholm.
Page: 635
Link: https://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/727548
Notes: Has been treated as an emendation of Apus Scopoli 1777 (Apodidae), but Rafinesque (p.28) explicitly attributed the Apus for which he proposed this name to Cuvier. Emendation of Apus Cuvier 1800 (Cuvier G. 1800. Leçons d'anatomie comparée. Tome I. Contenant les organes du mouvement. Baudouin, Paris.; tab. 7; https://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/33516232) (cf. also “Apus Cuvier 1798”; Cuvier G. 1798. Tableau élémentaire de l'histoire naturelle des animaux. Baudouin, Paris.; p. 700 & 454; https://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/27238526 & https://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/27238280 ; vernacular only on p. 454, but Latin on p. 700; has been treated as available, but declared nude as part of Opinion 502 https://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/34986794 .) Somewhat oddly, declared in Op. 502 (https://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/34986793 ) to be a substitute for Apus Latreille (Latreille PA. 1802-03. Histoire générale et particulière des crustacés et des insectes. Tome troisième. F Dufart, Paris.; p. 16; https://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/15580725 ; an objective junior synonym of Apus Cuvier), despite Latreille was not cited by Rafinesque. (Not to mention that Latreille, who did not cite an author at the introduction of any of his genera, certainly borrowed this name from Cuvier; see his text p. 186. This does not affect the taxonomic identity of the taxon the name denotes, however.) Partially suppressed in Opinion 502 https://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/34986784 , as it had precedence over the objective synonym Lepidurus Leach 1819, which the Commission aimed at validating.
Available: yes
Family: Triopsidae (Crustacea)!!

Björn Bergenholtz

... earlier a k a "Calalp"
Crustaceans ... (or even Plants)!?

This topic is far, far above me, but; also see C. S. Rafinesque as a Carcinologist, by Holthuis (1954) Zool. Verhand. Leiden, no. 25, pp. 1-43, (here, p.7):

Order NOTOSTRACA [in Branchiopoda, a class of crustaceans]

New generic names. Apodium Rafinesque (1814b, p. 29) to replace Apus Cuvier, 1797, the latter name resembling too much the generic name Apium L. for a plant. Phyllopus Rafinesque (1815, p.9 9) a substitute name for Apus Latreille (= Apus Cuvier, 1797).

Other generic names. Apus Cuvier, 1797 (Rafinesque, 1814b, p. 28; 1815, p. 99).

Nomina nuda. Trichosurus Rafinesque (1815, p. 99).
Also commented by the same Author in 1955 (here).

As well listed in Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature, Vol 12 (Part 12), pp.312-416 (1957), here, see pp.340, 376.

If of any help?


PS. If also Birds, at some point, somewhere? I have no idea.
I´d never seen Apodium before Laurent posted this thread.
Last edited:

James Jobling

Well-known member
Agreed, Laurent, Apodium Rafinesque 1814 is not a bird. Key entries reduced to 29,070. I don't know who is worse, Rafinesque or Strand.


Well-known member
Apodium Rafinesque 1814 is not a bird.
Do not feel bad, in CASSINIA Proceedings of the Delaware Valley Ornithological Club 1909 Conslantine S. Rafinesque as an Ornithologist by SAMUEL N. RHOADS it says "our indefatigable author published in a work on the fundamental principles of Somiology, some notes relating to the classification of birds, the most important being the substitution of his names ' ' Anseria ' ' and ' ' Apodium ' ' for Anser and Apus. "

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