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Coraciidae (1 Viewer)

Peter Kovalik

Well-known member
Slovakia
Ulf S. Johansson, Martin Irestedt, Yanhua Qu, Per G.P. Ericson. Phylogenetic relationships of rollers (Coraciidae) based on complete mitochondrial genomes and 15 nuclear genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. In Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available online 6 April 2018.

Abstract:

The rollers (Coraciidae) constitute a relative small avian family with ca. 12 species distributed in Africa, western and southern Eurasia, and eastern Australia. In this study we examine the phylogenetic relationships of all species currently recognized in the family, including two taxa whose taxonomic status is currently contested. By using shotgun sequencing on degraded DNA from museum study skins we have been able to recover complete mitochondrial genomes as well as 15 nuclear genes for in total 16 taxa. The gene sequences were analyzed both concatenated in a maximum likelihood framework as well in a species tree approach using MP-EST. The different analytical approaches yield similar, highly supported trees and support the current division of the rollers into two genera, Coracias and Eurystomus. The only conflict relates to the placement of the Blue-bellied Roller (C. cyanogaster), where the mitochondrial, and the concatenated nuclear and mitochondrial data set, place this taxon as sister to the other Coracias species, whereas nuclear data and the species tree analysis place it as the sister taxon of C. naevia and C. spatulatus. All analyses place the Eurasian roller (C. garrulus) with the two African species, Abyssinian Roller (C. abyssinica) and Liliac-breasted Roller (C. caudatus), and place this clade as the sister group to the Asian Coracias rollers. In addition, our results support a sister group relationship between the morphologically rather dissimilar Purple Roller (C. naevia) and Racquet-tailed Roller (C. spatulatus) and also support the division of Eurystomus in an African and an Asian clade. However, within the Asian clade the Azure Roller (E. azureus) from Halmahera appears to be nested within the Dollarbird (E. orientalis), indicating that that this taxon is a morphological divergent, but a rather recent offshoot, of the widespread Dollarbird. Similarly, the Purple-winged Roller (C. temminickii) from Sulawesi group together with C. benghalensis affinis from Southeast Asia and these two in turn comprises the sister group to C. benghalensis benghalensis from India and western Asia.
 

Peter Kovalik

Well-known member
Slovakia
Coracias garrulus

Carina Nebel, Kerstin Kadletz, Anita Gamauf, Elisabeth Haring, Peter Sackl, Michael Tiefenbach, Hans Winkler & Frank E. Zachos. Witnessing extinction: Population genetics of the last European Rollers (Coracias garrulus) in Austria and a first phylogeographic analysis of the species across its distribution range. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research, First published: 19 December 2018.

Abstract:

Due to broad‐scale habitat loss, European Rollers (Coracias garrulus) have been decreasing in numbers rapidly during the 20th century in parts of their European distribution range. In Austria, as of 2017, only a completely isolated relict population of two breeding pairs and a few non‐breeders remained in Styria compared to about 270 pairs in the 1950s. In 2018, no breeders have been recorded. Since 2002, all nestlings and adult birds in Austria have been ringed. Given the small census size, combined with lack of immigration from other populations, genetic depletion seems likely. In the present study, mitochondrial control region sequence and microsatellite data based on blood samples of nestlings from recent years were collected and compared with museum samples from historical times (when Rollers were more common and widespread in Austria) and with birds across the distribution range to arrive at a first preliminary phylogeographic dataset for the species. The mitochondrial DNA showed a decrease in variation over time in Austria, eventually reaching monomorphism, while genetic diversity of 10 microsatellite loci was higher than expected and a change in genetic structuring through time was observed. These results indicate drift effects in this relict European Roller population caused by the fast population breakdown and small population size. Our phylogeographic analysis indicates a division into a European and an Asian group, roughly (but not exactly) in accordance with the two subspecies C. garrulus garrulus (Europe) and Coracias garrulus semenowi (Asia). The lack of substructuring in the European group along with the results from nuclear DNA markers show the Austrian Rollers to be part of a formerly continuous population and opens the way to restocking the present relict population with birds from Eastern Europe (“genetic rescue”).
 

Acrocephalus

Well-known member
Carina Nebel, Kerstin Kadletz, Anita Gamauf, Elisabeth Haring, Peter Sackl, Michael Tiefenbach, Hans Winkler & Frank E. Zachos. Witnessing extinction: Population genetics of the last European Rollers (Coracias garrulus) in Austria and a first phylogeographic analysis of the species across its distribution range. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research, First published: 19 December 2018.
Abstract:

See also blogpost by the first author in the BOU blog:

Witnessing the extinction of a charismatic species.
 
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Nutcracker

Stop Brexit!
An incredibly misleading title. The species is not near extinction. The population in Austria is near extirpation. Big difference.

Andy
Differences between English and American. In English, [local/regional] extinction is correct; 'extirpation' is very rarely used, and when it is, has a very different meaning, more like "intended, deliberate extermination", so is not appropriate here :t:
 

Andy Adcock

Well-known member
England
Differences between English and American. In English, [local/regional] extinction is correct; 'extirpation' is very rarely used, and when it is, has a very different meaning, more like "intended, deliberate extermination", so is not appropriate here :t:

I always thought that extirpation could be inadvertent, simply building houses on the patch of forest that was the last, local, stronghold of a species would do it.

Extirpation by man can be deliberate or the result of a society that cares not for nature and the extinction occurs through, most commonly, loss of habitat.

I've seen the term used often and in none of the cases I recall, was there any actual drive or intention to 'extinct' a species, it was simply the inevitable result of mans actions.
 

Jos Stratford

Beast from the East
Differences between English and American. In English, [local/regional] extinction is correct; 'extirpation' is very rarely

Since we're being overly concerned by correct use of English, Americans do also speak English - so there is are no 'differences between English and American'. I presume you wanted to refer to differences between British English and American English.

But it is irrelevant, as British English speakers do also use the term extirpation in the meaning provided by our American poster, maybe just not you.
 

Kratter

Well-known member
The difference between the loss of a population (extirpation) and the loss of a species (extinction) is absolutely fundamental to conservation, whether in the UK or the US. I have been an academic in conservation biology for decades and UK based journals and texts make the distinction between these very different processes and words
Andy
 

Andy Adcock

Well-known member
England
The difference between the loss of a population (extirpation) and the loss of a species (extinction) is absolutely fundamental to conservation, whether in the UK or the US. I have been an academic in conservation biology for decades and UK based journals and texts make the distinction between these very different processes and words
Andy

A species can be 'locally' extinct through extirpation?

Local extinction is a term I've seen used and it's usually the result of mans activities.
 
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Kratter

Well-known member
A species can be 'locally' extinct through extirpation?

Local extinction is a term I've seen used and it's usually the result of mans activities.

I have seen "local extinction" used a lot as well. To me it is akin, but worse, than "partial albino."

Andy
 

Peter Kovalik

Well-known member
Slovakia
Coracias affinis

Ulf S. Johansson, Martin Irestedt, Yanhua Qu, Per G.P. Ericson. Phylogenetic relationships of rollers (Coraciidae) based on complete mitochondrial genomes and 15 nuclear genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. In Press, Accepted Manuscript, Available online 6 April 2018.

IOC Updates Diary Mar 25

Post proposed split of Indochinese Roller [Coracias affinis] on Updates/PS
 

Ian Lewis

aka Gryllo
Europe
I seem to remember that the contact zone is somewhere in Assam. Does anyone have a better idea? Wondering if maybe the individuals in Manas were Indian as opposed to Indochinese...

On my tour of NE India that started and ended at Guwahati all were recorded as affinis, which I know doesn't really answer your question as Manas is just west of Guwaharti.

Ian
 

Xenospiza

Distracted
Supporter
On ebird, birds from West Bengal east of the Siliguri corridor look like affinis to me (e.g. https://ebird.org/view/checklist/S41142809)
However, there are very few photos from the rest of West Bengal, Bihar or eastern Nepal, so it's impossible to check where intergradation takes place: south of the Ganges and in Chitwan (mostly?), the birds look like benghalensis.
 

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