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Icteridae (1 Viewer)

Carib Grackle

Humphries, M.B., M.A. Gonzalez, and R.E. Ricklefs. 2019. Phylogeography and historical demography of Carib Grackle (Quiscalus lugubris). Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 32:11–16.

PDF there

Gnorimopsar is a new name for Aaptus Richmond, 1902. But Aaptus is not preoccupied by Aaptos Gray, 1867. So, technically, there are no reason to maintain Gnorimopsar. Unless, in the meantime......

If you are more news, they're welcome...
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Unless, in the meantime, a reversal of precedence has been published...
A reversal of precedence is possible only when the disused name was not used as valid after 1899; as Aaptus was proposed in 1902, 100% of its usage is after 1899.

(Similar case: Odontorchilus Richmond 1915, new name for Odontorhynchus Pelzeln 1868, deemed preoccupied by Odontorynchus Leach 1830 (Crustacea).)
(Also: Nyctanassa Stejneger 1887, new name for Nyctherodius Reichenbach 1852, deemed preoccupied by Nycterodius Macgillivray 1842 (Ardeidae). In this case, a reversal of precedence is probably possible.)
Richmond had used the old article 23b to make Aaptus nomen oblitum but what is this article 23b ?
Art. 23b was an article present in the first and second ed. of the ICZN, which said that names not used as valid for 50 years in the primary zoological literature were nomina oblita and were not to be used (unless the Commission ruled the opposite): [1st ed.] (1961), [2nd ed.] (1964). This article was abrogated at the 17th ICZ (Monaco 1972, see [here]), and came out of force on 1 Jan 1973.

The Code, although it does not give any present force to this old article, protects the result of its explicit application, while it was in force, by former authors:
23.12. Names rejected under former Article 23b. A name that was rejected between 6 November 1961 and 1 January 1973, by an author who explicitly applied Article 23b in force between those dates under the then current editions of the Code, on the grounds that it was a nomen oblitum (see Glossary) is not to be given precedence over a junior synonym in prevailing usage, unless the Commission rules that the older but rejected name is to take precedence.
23.12.1. The term "rejected" in this Article must be construed rigidly; mere disregarding of a name is not to be construed as rejection (even if the Article 23b, then in force, was mentioned). The rejected name must have been cited and a junior synonym used instead of it as the valid name.
23.12.2. A name which was rejected under the former Article 23b may, in the absence of any other cause of invalidity, be used as valid if it is no longer considered to be a synonym of another name, or if its synonyms are themselves invalid under the provisions of the Code.​
Richmond was not among us any more at the right time, thus he certainly did not do it. But this was indeed done, during the right period and with an explicit citation of the article, by:
Blake ER. 1968. Family Icteridae, American Orioles and Blackbirds. Pp. 138-202 in: Paynter AR [ed]. Check-list of birds of the world. A continuation of the work of James L. Peters. Volume XIV. Parulidae, Drepanididae, Vireonidae, Icteridae, Fringillinae, Carduelinae, Estrildidae, Viduinae. Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Massachusetts.; p. 183; https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/14481384.​
(That it was sound is perhaps questionable, though -- Aaptus had been used as a valid name less than 50 years before it was rejected by Blake, e.g., [here] (1920), [here] (1926), [here] (1936), etc. But the Code is silent about the legitimacy of actions taken under the former Art. 23b.)
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Icterus gularis

Lucas Rocha Moreira, Blanca E. Hernandez‐Baños, and Brian Tilston Smith. 2020. Spatial predictors of genomic and phenotypic variation differ in a lowland Middle American bird (Icterus gularis) [Altamira Oriole]. Molecular Ecology. First published: 04 July 2020. https://doi.org/10.1111/mec.15536


Spatial patterns of intraspecific variation are shaped by factors such as geographic distance among populations, historical changes in gene flow and interactions with local environments. Although these factors are not mutually exclusive and operate on both genomic and phenotypic variation, it is unclear how they affect these two axes of variation. We address this question by exploring the predictors of genomic and phenotypic divergence in Icterus gularis , a broadly distributed Middle American bird that exhibits marked geographic variation in body size across its range. We combined a comprehensive SNP and phenotypic dataset to test whether genome‐wide genetic and phenotypic differentiation are best explained by (a) isolation by distance, (b) isolation by history, or (c) isolation by environment. We find that the pronounced genetic and phenotypic variation in I. gularis are only partially correlated and differ regarding spatial predictors. Whereas genomic variation is largely explained by historical barriers to gene flow, phenotypic diversity can be best predicted by contemporary environmental heterogeneity. Our genomic analyses reveal strong phylogeographic structure coinciding with the Chivela Pass at the Isthmus of Tehuantepec that was formed in the Pleistocene, when populations were isolated in north‐south refugia. In contrast, we found a strong association between body size and environmental variables, such as temperature and precipitation. The relationship between body size and local climate is consistent with a pattern produced by either natural selection or environmental plasticity. Overall, these results provide empirical evidence for why phenotypic and genomic data are often in conflict in taxonomic and phylogeographic studies.
Icterus galbula x I. bullockii

Jennifer Walsh, Shawn M Billerman, Vanya G Rohwer, Bronwyn G Butcher, Irby J Lovette, Genomic and plumage variation across the controversial Baltimore and Bullock’s oriole hybrid zone, The Auk, , ukaa044, https://doi.org/10.1093/auk/ukaa044


Hybrid zones are powerful natural settings for investigating how birds diversify into distinct species. Here we present the first genomic-scale exploration of the Baltimore (Icterus galbula) and Bullock’s (I. bullockii) oriole hybrid zone, which is notable for its long history of study and for its prominence in debates about avian species concepts and species limits. We used a reduced-representation sequencing approach to generate a panel of 3,067 genetic markers for 297 orioles sampled along the Platte River, a natural west-to-east transect across the hybrid zone. We then explored patterns of hybridization and introgression by comparing variation in genomic and plumage traits. We found that hybridization remains prevalent in this area, with nearly all orioles within the hybrid zone showing some degree of genomic mixing, and 41% assigned as recent-generation (F1/F2) hybrids. The center and width of the genomic and plumage gradients are concordant and coincident, supporting our finding that classically scored plumage traits are an accurate predictor of pure vs. hybrid genotypes. We find additional support for previous suggestions that the center of this hybrid zone has moved westward since it was first intensively sampled in the 1950s, but that this westward movement had slowed or ceased by the 1970s. Considered in concert, these results support previous inferences that some form of ongoing selection is counteracting the potential homogenization of these orioles via hybridization, thereby supporting their continued taxonomic separation as distinct species.

Variation of plumage patterns, geographic distribution and taxonomy of the Unicolored Blackbird (Aves: Icteridae)


The Unicolored Blackbird Agelasticus cyanopus (Vieillot, 1819) is a marsh bird with four allopatric subspecies restricted to lowlands in South America east of the Andes. I conducted a taxonomic revision of the species based on analysis of external morphological characters of 288 study skins, including all types available. My revision shows that: 1) Leistes unicolor Swainson, 1838, is a senior synonym of A. c. xenicus (Parkes, 1966) and, therefore, the correct name of the taxon should be A. c. unicolor (Swainson, 1838); 2) the range of A. c. unicolor (Swainson, 1838) is much wider than previously thought, extending from the mouth of the Rio Amazonas to the state of São Paulo, in southeastern Brazil, where it intergrades with A. c. atroolivaceus (zu Wied-Neuwied, 1831); 3) A. c. atroolivaceus extends its range well beyond the coast of Rio de Janeiro, reaching the coast of São Paulo, the central part of Minas Gerais, Bahia and Espírito Santo; and 4) specimens attributed to A. c. beniensis are highly variable, so this name must be considered a subjective junior synonym of the nominotypical taxon. Under the Biological Species Concept, two broadly parapatric species should be recognized, A. cyanopus and A. atroolivaceus (including unicolor as a subspecies). Under the Phylogenetic Species Concept or the General Lineage Concept of Species, the best taxonomic treatment is to recognize three species: A. cyanopus, A. atroolivaceus, and A. unicolor.


Aves, Agelasticus cyanopus, intergradation zone, marsh birds, New World blackbirds

Variation of plumage patterns, geographic distribution and taxonomy of the Unicolored Blackbird (Aves: Icteridae) | Zootaxa
Proposal (944) to SACC

Recognize Agelasticus atroolivaceus as a separate species from Agelasticus cyanopus
It's an expired security certificate, because they haven't paid their dues, rather than the website gone rogue.

Web sites prove their identity via certificates, which are valid for a set time period. The certificate for www.museum.lsu.edu expired on 25/06/2022.

Given that this species and Hepatic Tanager are both split by IOC, seems like both recent proposals might be part of the overall WGAC attempts at alignment
Vanya G. Rohwer, Lea M. Callan, John M. Kinsella, and Russell A Ligon (2022) No evidence that endohelminth parasites cause selection against hybrid orioles across the Baltimore–Bullock’s Oriole hybrid zone. Ornithology. Published online 19 August 2022.
No evidence that endohelminth parasites cause selection against hybrid orioles across the Baltimore–Bullock’s Oriole hybrid zone

The Baltimore–Bullock’s oriole hybrid zone is one of the best-studied avian hybrid zones in North America, yet our understanding of the causes of selection against hybrids remains poor. We examine if endohelminth parasites may cause selection against hybrid orioles but found no evidence for this hypothesis. Of the 139 male orioles we examined, 43 individuals contained endohelminth parasites from at least 1 of these groups: Cestoda, Acanthocephala, or Nematoda. Across the hybrid zone, Baltimore Orioles (Icterus galbula) and Bullock’s Orioles (I. bullockii) differed in their parasite communities, such that Baltimore Orioles frequently contained both Acanthocephala and Cestoda parasites whereas Bullock’s Orioles primarily contained Cestoda parasites. Despite these differences in parasite communities between parental species, the frequency of hybrid orioles with parasites was similar to parentals, suggesting that hybrids were as susceptible to endohelminth parasites as parentals. Using a subset of 99 adult male orioles, we explored how parasites may be associated with the expression of orange carotenoid-based plumage in hybrids and parentals. Associations between carotenoid-based plumage color and parasites were most strongly expressed in Bullock’s Orioles, but patterns were subtle and counterintuitive because individuals with parasites often had more enhanced color measures compared to individuals without parasites. Taken together, these data suggest that endohelminth parasites impose little fitness costs to male orioles on the breeding grounds and likely do not cause selection against hybrids.

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