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Musician Wren (1 Viewer)

Peter Kovalik

Well-known member
Fernanda Bocalini, 2013. A taxonomic review and phylogeny of the Cyphorhinus arada complex (Hermann, 1783) (Aves: Troglodytidae). Dissertation, Universidade de São Paulo.

The genus Cyphorhinus is a member of the Troglodytidae family, and their species range from Honduras, in Central America, to the North of Mato Grosso in Brazil and Northern Bolivia. Currently the genus comprises three species: C. thoracicus; C. phaeocephalus and C. arada. The C. arada complex is endemic form the Amazon forest and has eight recognized subspecies: C. a. arada, C. a. salvini, C. a. modulator, C. a. transfluvialis, C. a. interpositus, C. a. griseolateralis, C. a. urbanoi and C. a. faroensis. A large geographical variation has been detected in this group, both in plumage patterns and in the vocalizations; however, no extensive taxonomic review has been done so far. This genus also has eight other taxa, six in the C. phaeocephalus complex and two subordinates to C. thoracicus. A phylogeny encompassing the relationship of the three species of this genus has never been proposed. The objective of this project was to review the taxonomy of the Cyphorhinus arada complex based on morphological and vocal characters, as well as to propose a complete phylogenetic hypothesis of the Cyphorhinus genus. It has been analyzed 672 specimens and 179 tape-recordings of the entire genus. The taxonomic revision revealed that the C. arada complex could be divided into six diferent phylogenetic species; C. a. urbanoi and C. a. faroensis were synonymized into C. arada and the remaining subspecies (transfluvialis, modulator, salvini, interpositus and griseolateralis) had morphological and vocal characters that allowed us to consider them as a valid species. The geographic distribution pattern of these six species followed nearly the same pattern of the Amazonian areas of endemism. For the phylogenetic analyses, 19 integumentary (color patterns) and three vocal characters were assembled. Four equally parsimonious trees were obtained. The topology of strict consensus cladogram presented many polytomies; on it the monophyly of the genus was corroborated, C. t. thoracicus and C. t. dichrous form a clade that is the sister group of the remaining taxa as well as the C. phaeocephalus and C. arada complexes forms a monophyletic group together. The biogeographic analysis revealed that the relationship between the species of the C. arada complex and their corresponding areas of endemism are poorly supported by previous studies. Therefore, it is recommended to use other data from different sources, such as molecular and osteological, for a better understanding of the phylogenetic affinities of the valid taxa recognized in this study

Richard Klim

Monroe & Sibley 1993...
C. (a.) modulator. MUSICIAN WREN. (nw,c,s Amaz)
C. (a.) aradus. ORGAN WREN. (n Amaz)
Kroodsma & Brewer 2005 (HBW 10)...
It has been suggested that NE races possibly represent a separate species from W & S races.
46. The southern subspecies modulator (with rufogularis, transfluviatilis, interpositus, and griseolateralis) was formerly (e.g., Pinto 1944) occasionally treated as a separate species from Cyphorhinus arada; they were treated as conspecific by Hellmayr (1934) and Paynter & Vaurie (1960), and this has been followed by subsequent authors. Whittaker (2009) noted that vocal differences among subspecies suggest that more than one species is involved.
Whittaker 2009. Pousada Rio Roosevelt: a provisional avifaunal inventory in south-western Amazonian Brazil, with information on life history, new distributional data and comments on taxonomy. Cotinga 31: 23–46.
... Contra Ridgely & Tudor [1989] I have noted consistent vocal differences in all of the Brazilian subspecies' loudsong. My extensive tape-recordings of these taxa clearly demonstrate consistent vocal differences. Furthermore, all are allopatric (being separated by major Amazonian tributaries) and are morphologically distinct, strongly implying that more than one species is involved. I am currently reviewing vocal data for the entire C. arada complex.
PS. H&M4 recognises a modulator group (including salvini): "Subspecies groups based on Sibley & Monroe (1990)". But S&M's C (a) modulator has wider scope.
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Well-known member
Bocalini & Silveira 2016 Zootaxa 4143 No 3

A taxonomic revision of the Musician Wren, Cyphorhinus arada (Aves, Troglodytidae), reveals the existence of six valid species endemic to the Amazon basin


Cyphorhinus arada, an Amazonian endemic, shows considerable geographic variation in plumage that has led to the recognition of eight subspecies. These include C. a. arada, C. a. salvini, C. a. modulator, C. a. transfluvialis, C. a. interpositus, C. a. griseolateralis, C. a. urbanoi and C. a. faroensis. However, a thorough taxonomic revision of the Cyphorhinus arada complex has never been undertaken, so we revise the taxonomy based on morphological and vocal characters. We analyzed a total of 515 museum specimens and 146 voice recordings representing and encompassing the distributions of all named taxa, including those currently considered not valid. Vocal analyses showed major variation within the complex, from which several trends could be identified between populations. We concluded that six species (C. arada, C. transfluvialis, C. modulator, C. salvini, C. interpositus and C. griseolateralis) should be recognized under the Phylogenetic Species Concept based on the diagnosis of stable plumage and vocal patterns of each.


Aves, biogeography, morphology, vocalizations


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